September 10th,1862: Special Order-191 is recovered by a Confederate soldier.
September 17: The Army of the Potomac is later crushed at the Battle of Camp Hill enabling the Confederacy to capture Philadelphia and to win diplomatic recognition from France and Great Britain. The United States are forced to grant the Confederacy independence.
1863: Dominion of Canada is created.
1864: Abraham Lincoln (then Republican) loses the presidential election.
1867: Russia offers Alaska to the United States with a purchase price of seven million dollars, but the US is financially drained and cannot purchase the territory. It continues as a Russian colony.
1870s: Cuba is bought by the Confederate States.
1871: Germany unified into a single sovereign state.
1877: Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat) becomes President of the USA.
1880: James Longstreet (Whig) becomes President of the the CSA.
1881: James G. Blaine (Republican), known for his hardline anti-Confederacy policies, becomes President of the USA.
Second Mexican War
1881: The CSA purchases Sonora and Chihuahua from the Mexican Empire for $3,000,000. The USA uses the purchase as a pretext for declaring war upon the Confederacy.
1882: James Longstreet enters the CSA into an alliance with Britain and France. This results in a victory for the Confederacy once more. Part of northern Maine is lost to Canada. The only major victory for the U.S in the war was in Montana, where forces under Theodore Roosevelt and George Armstrong Custer were able to repel the British invaders, albeit after the official end of the war. The USA creates an alliance with the German Empire. As part of its negotiations with France and England ,the Confederacy phases out slavery, although heavy segregation remains.
April 22: The day of the Armistice becomes Remembrance Day in the USA. It is treated as a somber commemoration holiday.
In the aftermath of the war, the Republican party is not elected for a hundred years, with the Socialist Party forming under leadership of former President Abraham Lincoln. Democrats become an ongoing majority party. The Confederacy keeps their new Mexican states and makes plans to build railway from Texas to the Gulf of California / Pacific Ocean.
1882: Republicans are voted out of Congress during the elections and not elected back in for a hundred years. Former President Abraham Lincoln splits Republican Party, forming a new Socialist Party. CSA builds railway connecting Texas with port city of Guaymas, Sonora, on the Pacific coast.
1894: The CSA attempts to build a canal crossing through Central America, but this plan is shelved after the USA threatens war.
1901: Hispano-Japanese War. Japan wins, and as a result hold on to Chosen and Formosa (Korea and Taiwan in OTL), Guam, and the Philippines.
1903: Russia joins Britain / France / Confederacy to form the alliance known as the Quadruple Entente.
1909: Woodrow Wilson elected president of the Confederacy.
1912: Theodore Roosevelt elected president of the USA.
The Confederacy aligns with Britain / France / Russia in the Quadruple Entente. By necessity, the USA allies with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. US Military reorganized along German lines.
World War 1
June 28, 1914: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. Pro-Serbian terrorists hit Franz Ferdinand's car with a bomb. Sparking off the First Great War.
Late July: Mobilization of the USA and Germany.
August: The Austro-Hungarian Empire accuses Serbia of backing the assassination; this leads to war between the two. The Alliance system means that Russia, France and Britain side with Serbia and Germany with Austro-Hungary. The United States declare war on the Confederate States and Canada (England), and launch an invasion of both countries; in the CSA, Kentucky and western Virginia are attacked. The Confederates launch a counter-invasion through Maryland and Pennsylvania, and succeed in occupying Washington, DC. In the Pacific Ocean, the USA captures the Sandwich Islands (Hawai'i) from Britain.
As presaged by the attempted invasion of Kentucky by the USA in 1882, trench warfare soon develops on most fronts in North America. The series concentrates on the deadlock on the Maryland / Pennsylvania border, the Kentucky front, the Roanoke Valley front, and skirmishes in Sequoyah (OTL Oklahoma).
1915: Winter: The armies on the North American continent are slowed down by the cold. In both Europe and North America Christmas truces bring the fighting to a tantalizingly temporary halt.
Early part of the year: Utah attempts to secede from the USA in rebellion. US Army troops are sent to quash the rebellion.
Autumn: Red Rebellion of the black population of the Confederacy. Communist cells pop up throughout the South, particularly in areas with a high black population.
The war remains stalemated, with American forces unable to break through to Guaymas, Nashville, Washington, DC, Winnipeg, Montreal, or Quebec City. Use of poison gas merely causes increased misery for the infantrymen.
1916: Stalemate remained the rule on all fronts. Even a new USA invention, the barrel, did not live up to expectations due to poor tactical deployment. The only progress took place in the West, where the Mormons were crushed and US forces made progress in Texas and Sequoya. The Confederacy is forced to divert military resources to take on the Red forces rampaging throughout many parts of the South.
April: The Easter Rising occurs in Ireland and the US backs up the Irish Rebels against the British.
April 22nd, 1917: Thanks to a rare flash of insight by aging General George Custer, the US Army finally learns to deploy barrels en-masse. US forces under Custer finally smash through Confederate lines in Tennessee, seizing Nashville.
October: The Russian Empire is forced to withdraw from the war to deal with the Bolshevik Communist revolution which lasts for the next decade.
In Canada, Winnipeg and Quebec City fall, and a puppet Quebec government declares independence from Canada. Soon the Confederacy's ally, France, is forced to capitulate to the Germans. Using Custer's barrel tactics, a breakthrough is achieved in Maryland, and Washington, DC, is retaken by US forces. Despite a last-minute use of Negro soldiers by the CSA, the war is lost by late 1917.
The Republic of Quebec is established and recognized by London as well as the Independence of Ireland including all of Ulster in northern Ireland. The British Empire is also forced to relinquish claims to the Atlantic island chains of the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Sandwich Islands, and all of the Dominion of Canada in North America to the United States.
The German Empire annexes the French Congo and Belgian Congo colonies in central Africa, occupies Belgium, and sets up the puppet states to the east of Ukraine and the Kingdom of Poland, which "has the same relation to Germany as Quebec has to America".
The Confederates fared quite poorly in the aftermath of the Great War. Areas north of the Rappahannock River in Virginia were added to West Virginia; Kentucky re-joined the Union; Sequoya was seized; and portions of West Texas joined the Union as the new state of Houston.
Rise of the Freedom Party
1918: The United States celebrates their victory against the Confederate States which lasts through Autumn.
November: Socialists capture the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time, disrupting Theodore Roosevelt's future plans for domestic and foreign affairs.
1919: Anti-U.S.A. sentiment among the white population increases, and several reactionary political parties, including the Freedom Party are formed across the Confederate States. The Freedom Party attracts the very bitter ex-Sergeant Jake Featherston who later wins leadership of the Freedom Party with his angry mannerisms connect him and his Party to the masses and becoming the white man's proto-version of the Socialists popular with Confederate blacks and Northerners in the U.S.A.
1920s: Socialists in the US begin making budget cuts to its War Department and the Army while occupation in Canada continues under General Custer's Iron Fist Rule.
1921: Featherston runs for office but loses against Wade Hampton V of the Whigs and Ainsworth Layne of the Radical Liberals.
1923: Wade Hampton V is assassinated at a Birmingham, Alabama rally by a deranged Freedom Party-stalwart Grady Calkins and the Freedom Party begins to lose support.
1927: The Bolshevik Communist revolution is crushed and the Tsar rules Russia. And the Great Mississippi Floods which Feather used to blame the Micheal confederate administration for his inresponsive actions as well as the blame for the crash later on.
1929: The Stock Market crashes leading to the Great Depression. President Hosea Blackford takes the fall for the crash.
1932: The First Pacific War begins between the United States and the Empire of Japan.
January 5th, 1933: Calvin Coolige dies of an heart attack before he could take office, Herbert Hoover takes over.
1934: The First Pacific War ends and Jake Featherston becomes president of the CSA and the nation turns into a one-party state, eliminating both the Whig and Radical Liberal parties and the Freedom Party gains control of the House and Senate.
1936: Al Smith is elected US President and Jake Featherston survives an assassination attempt by a Red Negro but is put down by Clarance Potter, who later becomes second-in-command.
1940: Jake Featherston demands Al Smith for the former Confederate states of Houston, Kentucky, and Sequoyah.
January 7th, 1941: The Richmond Agreement is established and states of Houston and Kentucky returns to the Confederacy, but Sequoyah and Part of Virginia remains part of the US.
June 22nd, 1941: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany died and The new Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm III refuses to return the former French territory of Alsace-Lorraine that France's ruling party had demanded. Britain, France and the C.S.A. soon declare war on Germany, with Russia joining in days later. Operation: Blackbeard begins, launching full forces on the US.
World War 2
June 22nd, 1941, 3:30am: The War in North America kicks off with mass bombings in Philadelphia and military installations all over southern Ohio.
August: Sandusky on Lake Erie falls to Confederate forces lead by General George Patton, cutting the US in two and prevent raw materials from the west from reaching factories to the east. Mormons begin to rise up against the US again.
December 7th, 1941: Stalemate characterizes the war in the Pacific throughout most of the year. The first major clash between Japan and the U.S. comes at the Battle of Midway
The war in Europe spawns early triumphs for the Entente. In Ukraine, the local soldiers and population welcome the arriving Russians as liberators, ensuring that most of the German satellite nation is lost. Elsewhere the manpower-swarming tactics of the Russians, unchanged from the last war, ensure that they suffer heavy losses for small gains. The Kaiser's army, particularly its panzers and 88mm flak cannons, prove instrumental in preventing the loss of East Prussia and the satellite Kingdom of Poland.
In South America, a tense peace is maintained between Argentina and Chile, who both decide that they have had enough fighting in the First Great War. All of South America's nations are apparently neutral in this new conflict.
In the West, the French Army swiftly recaptures Alsace-Lorraine (and possibly captures the Rhineland of eastern Germany) and stands on the Rhine River. Ireland is overrun by the British, while the Anglo-French thrust through the Low Countries succeeds beyond all expectations. The Belgians welcome the Entente as liberators. The Dutch, though more pro-German, are brushed aside, and some of the North German Plain was overrun.
Yet victory does not follow. A British end-run through Norway, made for unclear reasons — possibly for access to either Swedish iron ore through Narvik or for use of Norwegian naval bases (or both) — fails spectacularly. Churchill's bright idea does nothing more than drive the furious Norwegians into the "Central Powers"' camp. France proves unable to cross the Rhine and the Germans on that front soon rally. Austria-Hungary, despite its clear weakness, remains united, and though Bulgaria wavers as a German ally she never abandons Berlin entirely. Only the Low Countries campaign still shows promise for the Entente by the end of 1941, but Hamburg still remains unconquered. By February 1942, the German Army feels confident enough to launch counter-offensives against the British outside Hamburg and the Russians in the Ukraine.
During this time, negros with outdated passports are deported to death camps in Lousiana and Texas during the 'Southern Holocaust' beginning with machine guns to gas chambers and burying the dead negros in mass graves.
February 1942: Confederate bombers, which have been bombarding Philadelphia since the war's beginning, manage to hit the Powel House, destroying the building and its underground bunker. Al Smith was in the bunker during the bombing and is killed. His vice president Charles W. La Follette is sworn in as president shortly afterward. In his first speech as president, La Follette vows to continue the war and win it for the United States.
February 2, 1943: Confederates are pushed out of Pittsburgh.
Mid-1943: Mormons are finally suppressed and Winnipeg is surrounded and under siege by the U.S. and Québécois armies during the Canadian revolt.
1944: US forces continues to push back the Confederacy as well as penetrate deep into eastern Georgia and South Carolina, eventually reaching the sea and cutting the Confederacy in half.
Germany destroys Petrograd, Russia with the first Superbomb. The Confederates sends a jury-rigged plutonium (Jovium to Confederate scientists) truck bomb to infiltrate and attack Philadelphia. The carnage is fearsome, but critical government buildings are spared atomic destruction, as the bomb exploded on the outskirts of the city.
The United States retaliates by superbombing Newport News, Viginia, narrowly missing Featherston as well as Charleston, South Carolina.
Following Petrograd's destruction, the Kaiser again broadcast a surrender demand. Despite the loss of his capital, the Russian Tsar again refused, backed by Britain and France. Though initially reluctant to drop a bomb in the west (where prevailing winds would blow radioactive fallout back into Germany), the German air force bombed Paris, killing the French king and effectively knocking France out of the war. The Russian government, its capital lost, its armies disintegrating, and under pressure from a Japanese ultimatum to evacuate several of its Siberian provinces, realized that no more help would be forthcoming from its Western allies on the continent. After dithering for several weeks, the Tsar asked the Kaiser for an armistice. The collapse of both France and Russia provoked the British, whose own uranium program had finally borne fruit (embarrassingly, their Confederate clients had built and used a superbomb before them) to destroy Hamburg.
The German response would wait until June, when three superbombs were dropped near-simultaneously on London, Brighton, and Norwich, along with a broadcast warning that Germany had more bombs and would use them. Churchill, who had fled London along with the British royal family after the Hamburg bomb, boasted that Britain would take immediate vengeance. He sent Britain's second superbomb on its way into Germany, but the plane was shot down over Belgium by German turbo-powered night fighters. Having no more bombs in its arsenal, the Churchill government fell and Britain sued for peace, as did France in turn.
July 14, 1944: The Second Great War ends when Jake Featherston is assassinated by black guerrilla Cassius and Confederate Vice President Donald Partridge becomes president and officially surrenders his nation to the United States, before being taken into custody by General Irving Morrell. After eighty-three years of independence, the CSA ceases to exist.
Subsequently, the former country is completely occupied by U.S. troops, and divided into several military districts.
August 1, 1944 onwards: Emboldened by the collapse of the Russians in Europe, the Japanese launch an invasion of Siberia, to seize as much territory as they can. Although Vladivostok is quickly taken, the Russians prove to far tougher than previously thought. A stalemate begins in the vast wilderness. The expedition will end with Japanese control over several southern provinces, as well as Kamchatka, though Russia will still maintain a link with the Bering Sea, by the time fighting ends with a hostile truce in mid-1951...
August 11, 1944: The Treaty of Aachen formally marks the surrender of the European Entente to the Central Powers. The key points of the accord include:
• The recognition of Germany’s jurisdiction over Belgium. • The occupation of Northwestern France for a period of no less than twenty years. • France loses French Equatorial Africa, Madagascar, and all of its West African colonies to Germany. Austria-Hungary gains the Seychelles and Reunion. • Britain is forced to sever all formal political ties with South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, and loses Botswana, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, the Gambia, and Nyasaland to Germany. Ireland’s independence is recognized. Malta is transferred to Austria-Hungary. In a separate agreement, Britain is also forced to surrender Winston Churchill and Oswald Mosley for a war crimes trial in Germany. • Russia is forced to recognize the independence of Estonia, Finland, Belarus, Azerbaijan, and Chechnya. However, the Germans make no move to force the Russians to hand over their disputed Siberian provinces to the Japanese. • America’s jurisdiction over all French and British Caribbean colonies is recognized. The USA also gains French Polynesia, the Gilbert Islands, the Cook Islands, and New Caledonia. Guatemala gains British Honduras, while Brazil gains both British Guyana and French Guinea. • All three nations are forced to admit to war guilt, as well as pay a huge level of restitution for damages caused in the conflict. Britain, France, and Russia are also forbidden from maintaining large armies or navies, or from possessing any weapons of mass destruction.
The Japanese sign a separate peace treaty with Great Britain, which ends with Hong Kong, Singapore, Sarawak, Burma, and Malaysia ceded to the Japanese.
1945 onwards: Large numbers of Frenchmen begin to immigrate to the Republic of Quebec, not wanting to face life under German domination. Under U.S. pressure, former members of Action Française are explicitly banned from entering the country, though there are those who slip through nonetheless.
January 20, 1945: Thomas Dewey is inaugurated as the 34th President of the United States. In his speech, he lays out a series of ambitious goals, including the incorporation of the former Confederate States into the Union, and working with the German Empire to prevent other nations from acquiring superbombs.
January 22, 1945: In a private audience with the Japanese ambassador, Dewey explicitly warns against trying to seize Russian Alaska.
March 9, 1945: Continuing his moves to reform the government, the Democratic-controlled Congress passes two of the new President’s biggest shake-ups to date. The new Department of Defense consolidates the War Department into a more manageable body (and also establishes an independent United States Air Force). Likewise, a new body, the Organization of Strategic Services, is established to better coordinate and enhance America’s intelligence gathering abilities.
June, 1945: A U.S. sponsored coup in Mexico removes Emperor Francisco Jose from power, who is executed by the perpetrators. A junta of pro-Republican military officers takes control in Mexico City, promising Philadelphia that they will move to establish Mexico as a representative democracy “at all deliberate speed.” The political chaos in Mexico, combined with the shattered postwar economy, sparks a large migration into the United States.
In its first elections held since the end of the Second Great War, the Afrikaner National Party sweeps to power in South Africa. A policy of Apartheid is quickly implemented to control its black population, drawing strong condemnation from the United States and muted protests from Germany. Over the next few years, South Africa becomes a favorite destination for desperate Southern war criminals. Some will play key roles in the atrocities committed by the South African government over the next several decades.
August, 1945 onwards: Operation Eagle Claw, the re-settlement of Utah’s Mormon population to the Big Island in the Sandwich Isles begins. An attempt to start yet another revolt ends in disaster, with the perpetrators executed. Utah will largely be empty of Mormons by the end of the year. It will subsequently be opened for settlement…
December, 1945: Ferdinand Koenig, Saul Goldman, Jefferson Pinkard, Vern Green, and Mercer Scott are all hung within days of each other.
1946 onwards: In order to assist the two million survivors of the Southron Holocaust re-establish some form of livelihood, and to hasten the reconstruction of Haiti, President Dewey announces that the Caribbean nation will be open to unlimited immigration of all survivors. Over time, most will make the journey.
British rule in India completely collapses during this year, as the new provisional government begins a hasty withdrawal. After a long period of chaos and violence in many parts of the former Raj, the situation will calm somewhat by the mid-1950s.
The new nations include the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Republic of Bengal, the State of Sri Lanka, the Republic of Bharat, the State of Hyderabad, and the new Japanese puppet Republic of Burma.
January 5, 1946: Winston Churchill and Oswald Mosley are both executed by the Germans, for their role in sparking the Second Great War and the bombing of Hamburg.
April 2, 1946: Alberta becomes the first former Canadian province to be established as a U.S. territory, due to the fact that it remained largely calm during the last Canadian revolt (and due to the large number of U.S. settlers now living there).
August 1, 1946: The Territory of Baja California is formally established.
August 8, 1946: In a referendum, the citizens of Cuba vote to seek ascension to the Union as a state. Despite the desire of some die-hards for independence, most were simply grateful to be rid of the Freedom Party.
January 1, 1947: Cuba is admitted into the Union. It will be the only former Confederate state to regularly vote for the Socialists.
June 6—August, 1948: President Dewey authorizes the beginning of Operation Husky: the invasion of Russian Alaska, commanded by General Daniel MacArthur.
His Socialist opponent, Senator Henry Wallace of Iowa, accuses Dewey of “politics by other means,” and claims that the offensive is “Dewey’s folly,” both of which gain him jeers from the pro-Democratic newspapers.
Despite rough terrain and stiff pockets of Russian resistance, the invasion is a complete success. Dewey’s prospects for reelection, already high thanks to the recovering economy, skyrocket even further.
November 2, 1948: President Dewey wins a fairly easy victory over Senator Wallace. The Democrats also retain control of Congress, although the Socialists gain seats thanks to the elections for Cuba’s Congressional delegation. It’s seen by most as a full vindication of the President’s domestic and foreign policy.
1949 onwards: Sparked by France’s final defeat at the hands of Germany, and by years of brutal rule by Action Française, a bloody war for independence breaks out in Algeria, led by the underground Army of National Liberation. Although far from sympathetic for their cause, the Germans do nothing to assist the French forces in the country; by late 1949, Germany finally steps in and orders all French forces to vacate the colony. Most former French settlers flee either to South Africa or Quebec. Algeria’s Jews mostly leave for Quebec as well.
January 20, 1949: In his inaugural speech, President Dewey calls for a “united front of democratic states to create a just and lasting peace.”
February 14, 1949: In what will later become known as the “Valentine’s Day Pitch,” President Dewey, in a special address to Congress, proposes the creation of the Compact of Democratic States (CDS), to forge a lasting political, military, and economic alliance between all willing participants.
February 20, 1949: Japan formally annexes Hainan Island.
March 1, 1949: The Treaty of Philadelphia establishes the Compact of Democratic States. Besides the United States, the signatories include Quebec, Ireland, Liberia, Texas, Mexico, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, Chile, and the provisional government of Haiti. Among other things, it promises mutual defense for all member states, and an eventual reduction in trade barriers. It will be headquartered in New York City.
In a separate agreement signed a few days later, the United States arranges for the establishment of a Nicaragua Canal, securing a ten-mile wide canal zone from government of the country in question. The groundbreaking ceremony will be in January of 1950.
January 22, 1950: Sonora, Chihuahua, Jamaica, the Bahamas (including Bermuda), and Newfoundland are established as Territories.
March 3, 1950: In another major legislative victory for President Dewey, the Immigration Reform Act of 1950 is passed by Congress and signed into law (thanks to large numbers of Socialist votes). The new bill, pushed hard by Congresswoman Blackford, abolishes the 1930s-era restrictions put forward by President Hoover, and explicitly allows the immigration of groups under threat “from genocide or persecution,” in recognition of the failure to take in large numbers of black refugees prior to the war.
1951 onwards: Exploiting the former Confederate scientists from Huntsville and Lexington, the United States begins working towards detonating a sunbomb, as well as towards the creation of ballistic missiles.
April 15, 1951: Australia and New Zealand, both concerned of the looming threat of an attack by the Japanese Empire, become signatories of the CDS.
June 30, 1951: The German Empire and Austria-Hungary detonate the world’s first sunbomb at a remote testing facility in German Southwest Africa. The United States promptly begins accelerating its own efforts to acquire the weapon.
1951 onwards: Buoyed by the liberalized American laws regarding immigration, a new wave of migrants begins to arrive in the USA. This new migration includes Serbs, Montenegrins, Albanians, Italians, Romanians, Croats, Bosnians, Czechs, Slovaks, Greeks, Italians, and Jews (mostly from Russia). Early members of this new wave are encouraged by the government to settle in newly vacant Utah, as well as the Canadian and Southern frontiers.
Besides the European immigrants, a smaller wave also begins to flow from America’s West Indian territories, with most settling in New York City. Mexican migrants continue to pour into both the Southwest and former CSA, while (with Japanese encouragement) significant numbers of Chinese refugees (mostly from the coastal cities and Hainan), begin to arrive in California.
January 1, 1952: Mirroring the creation of the CDS, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians unveil the new European Community, to be based in Berlin. The primary purpose of the new organization is to complete the domination over Britain and France. Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and the Central Powers puppet states in Eastern Europe also join on this date. Besides serving as a political and military alliance, the Treaty of Vienna promises to break down all remaining trade barriers on the continent (with the intended effects of German and Austro-Hungarian corporations dominating all of their possible rivals).
July 15, 1952: The United States detonates its first sunbomb at a remote base in the Gilbert Islands.
November 4, 1952: With the personal popularity of President Dewey at his back, and a humming economy, Harry Truman is elected as America’s 35th President, over Socialist Adlai Stevenson of Illinois and Republican Harold Stassen of Minnesota.
May 22, 1953: The Independence Movement (IM) is inaugurated at a summit in Constantinople. A loose alliance anchored by the Ottoman Empire and the Empire of Brazil, the IM is designed to provide an umbrella for nations to resist domination by the Americans, Germans, or Japanese. Besides the Ottomans and Brazil, it includes the Indian, African, and South American countries un-aligned to any major power.
February 8, 1955: Britain grants independence to Kenya and Uganda, due to the financial difficulties of maintaining a hold on them. Both quickly join the IM.
August 4, 1955: Alberta votes to become the first Canadian territory to join the Union; formal admittance will come in 1956, in time for the Presidential elections.
November 6, 1956: President Truman wins a close contest against New York Governor William Averell Harriman.
May 1, 1957: Newfoundland is admitted into the Union.
April 5, 1958: Houston, Kentucky, and Tennessee are formally re-admitted into the Union, as the military rule of the three states comes to an end.
January 1, 1959 onwards: Britain formally grants independence to Nigeria, which soon collapses into a civil war between the Yoruba and Igbo dominated south and the Hausa dominated north. The Germans side with the southern forces, and force a truce by early 1960, which create three new nations (one Hausa, one Yoruba, and one Igbo). The primary motive for the German alliance with the southern coalition was to guarantee access to the sizable oil deposits in the southeast. Certain German and Austro-Hungarian companies will gain valuable concessions…
September 15, 1959: The Nicaragua Canal is completed.
November 1, 1959: The first open elections are held in Mexico since the 1946 coup. The conservative Liberal Reconstruction Party (dominated by the army) sweep into power, against accusations of vote rigging and corruption from the opposition Socialists. Despite this controversy, President Truman publicaly declares the elections “open and free.”
November 8, 1960: The Socialist Party ticket, comprised of Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey and Washington State’s Warren Magnuson recaptures the White House, after twelve years of Democratic control. A prime concern for the President-elect is the growing possibility that Japan may soon gain a superbomb…
January 20, 1961: Hubert Humphrey is inaugurated as the 36th President of the United States.
The German Empire is currently the strongest nation in the world, along with the United States of America and the Empire of Japan. With a large and very professional military, and home to the most advanced scientific institutions on Earth, it completely dominates Europe, along with its old ally, Austria-Hungary.
Ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm III, the Empire rules over what was once Belgium, and continues its military occupation of northwestern France (which some have called to be annexed fully into the Reich). Paris is still being rebuilt, albeit as a German metropolis, with only memories and photographs existing to remind the world of the city that once was known for its Belle époque. The only remaining security concern for the Germans (outside the remote possibility of a war with the United States), are the Russians, who continue to loom on the eastern frontiers.
Besides its European possessions, Germany boasts an impressive colonial empire, most of it centered in Africa. Mittelafrika is a place of many different extremes. If you ask what kind of an empire it is, you’ll get one answer: “Which part?” It ranges from the relatively wealthy cash-crop producing colonies in West Africa (where the Germans have cultivated local elites loyal to the Empire), to the settler colonies of Southwest Africa, East Africa, and strategically vital Madagascar.
And then there’s the Congo, which is a different case entirely. Just what is being committed there is the subject of an expose being currently being finished by the Boston Herald’s Theodore Schanberg…
In contrast to the overall stability of the German Empire, The Austro-Hungarian Empire remains on a knife-edge. Sitting on top of the resentful Albanians, Croats, Czechs, Serbs, Bosnians, and Romanians has taken a steady toll over the empire’s resources. Despite heavy (often encouraged) emigration abroad from the most resentful groups, many observers around the world predict that they will soon fragment and collapse.
For Emperor Karl II, there are few good options to extract his realm from this predicament. There are several proposals to deal with the crisis, none of which has captured his imagination. Even as the Empire’s soldiers prepare to withdraw from the newly formed puppet, The Kingdom of Romania, many storm clouds have appeared on the horizon.
But if the worst should come to pass, the German government has prepared several plans of its own to deal with such a disaster….
Both the Germans and the Austro-Hungarians continue to dominate, politically, economically, and militarily, the other nations of Europe through the European Community. The member states of the EC generally fall into three categories:
The First Tier nations include Norway, the Netherlands, Finland, Poland, Belarus, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Estonia. They’re either allies of conviction (such as the Norwegians and the Dutch), or utterly dependent on Germany for guarantees to their territorial integrity (everybody else).
The Second Tier nations include Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Denmark and Sweden. Although somewhat resentful of being in the shadow of the Germans and Austro-Hungarians, they know that as long their MEPs remain quiet in the rubberstamp Berlin Parliament, they will be left alone.
The Third Tier nations are the United Kingdom of Great Britain and the Fourth Republic of France. After European Russia (and, increasingly, portions of the Balkans), they are regarded as the worst places to live in the Continent. They also stand as an example of what happens when the wishes of Berlin and Vienna are defied via the sword to any other nation thinking of raising a loud fuss to Europe's masters. The average citizen of both nations grows up, as of 1961, waiting only to get out, whether it’s to America, Quebec, Texas, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, or oil-flushed Venezuela (if you have the right skills, you’re in high demand indeed).
It should be mentioned that London and Paris are still being rebuilt, almost a generation after their destruction by the Germans (reconstruction funds were slow in coming, as the Germans cared more about Hamburg than the capitols of their mortal enemies).
Other than the Germans, the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians maintain sizable colonial enclaves on the African continent, although Italy’s Libyan and Somalian colonies and Portuguese Angola are starting to see evolving anti-colonial movements, which are ruthlessly suppressed, with German approval. They are covertly supported by the Independence Movement, who hope to see the Europeans withdraw by the end of the century…
The Congo Affair
January 1961 onward: The wave of immigration that began under the Dewey Administration continues unabated, with Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Co-Prosperity Sphere providing the largest number of new citizens. The immigrant wave from East Asia will last until the outbreak of the Fourth Pacific War later in the decade.
The Custer carrier group is finally completed, operating out of Pearl Harbor, in the Sandwich Isles. The last part of the naval expansion and modernization program undertaken by Dewey and Truman, the U.S.S. George Armstrong Custer will begin regular patrols in March of 1961. In response, the Japanese will increase their carrier patrols on their side of the maritime frontier that separates the two powers.
February 29th: In his first address to a joint session of Congress, President Humphrey focuses most of his attention on domestic issues. He makes the case eloquently for a universal healthcare system, and also talks extensively on the need for new legislation to protect America’s remaining wilderness areas.
Humphrey’s focus on the environment surprises some contemporary observers, even though a nascent movement has emerged over the last decade (with some of the more notable protests emerging in Cleveland, Ohio over the severely polluted Cuyahoga River in 1955, and a 1958 series of demonstrations against a consortium that planned to build a theme park almost on top of the site of Second Mexican War’s Battle of Louisville).
On foreign policy, Humphrey issues what is widely viewed as a warning against the Japanese Empire against attempting to procure a superbomb, and also levels veiled criticism against the Russian Empire and the Republic of South Africa over their human rights violations.
March 8th onward: In the first of a series of nine articles, the Boston Herald’s Theodore Schanberg, in a devastating expose, brings the American public’s attention to the atrocities committed by the German Empire in the Congo. As bad (if not worse) than King Leopold’s brutal actions in his Congo Free State, the articles go into details about massacres, forced deportations, and the extremely cruel conditions that exist in the colony’s mining camps and plantations.
President Humphrey expresses his outrage, when asked about the story at a press conference soon afterwards; a Congressional Committee drawn up in May to investigate Schanberg’s charges will confirm them all by the end of the year. Domestically, the news reports about the Congo Affair will lead to a greater deal of attention leveled at the crimes of the Southern Holocaust; for many young people, the failure of the prewar government to help stop the persecution of African-Confederates is often compared to the lack of attention that the government has given to the Congo (a sin shared by every government dating back to the Sinclair Administration, as Schanberg is careful to note).
The Congo Affair, as this scandal will be known, will cause the first serious disruption in U.S.-German relations since the end of the Second Great War (with normalcy not being restored until the end of the decade). The international fallout is immediate, with the Ottoman/Brazilian-led Independence Movement angrily denouncing Berlin’s conduct in the Congo, as well as demanding immediate freedom for the colony.
For the Germans, the lurid reports now cascading out of the Congo causes a huge political scandal, resulting in the resignation of the Chancellor, and, after an investigation on the part of the now Social Democratic Party-controlled Reichstag, the dismantling of Germany’s colonial administration in the Congo, with Berlin taking an increasing level of control over the colony. A number of former colonial administrators, agents, and corporate executives stand trial for their accused crimes; with many being given lengthy prison sentences. There’s a popular uproar on the part of the German public over these revelations: for many citizens, the idea of their nation being compared to Featherston’s Confederacy doesn’t go over well at all.
July 15th: An anti-Apartheid protest march in the Aliwal North township ends in a massacre committed against the marchers by the police. A report relayed to the U.S. embassy in Pretoria informs of at least two wanted former Freedom Party Guards who took part in what will be known as the “AN Massacre,” by historians.
The U.S. government condemns this atrocity, causing Pretoria to recall its Ambassador to Philadelphia. America’s envoy in return, is also recalled. Legislation is immediately introduced (by Congresswoman Flora Blackford, in her last written bill before her retirement) for sanctions to be placed upon South Africa. They will be signed into law by President Humphrey in September, 1961.
In the meantime, Cassius Madison, who has founded his own Freedom Party fugitive catching Remembrance Center by this time (based in New York City), begins to plan an expansion of activities into South Africa. There are still a lot of war criminals who haven’t faced justice after all. His biggest triumph will come in 1962.
As part of a new program to further bind the member states of the Independence Movement together, the governments of the Ottoman Empire and the Empire of Brazil announce the establishment of a brand new program aimed at completely developing their allies.
Rise of the APF
Called the “Alliance for Peace and Friendship,” (although it will known by most as the "APF" in the coming decades), the program’s stated goals are to fund new infrastructure, educational facilities, and agricultural projects among all of the member nations of the IM. Volunteers drawn from all over the two empires will be stationed for up to three years at a time, from Bharat to Bolivia, on these APF-funded programs. It’s regarded as a showcase by many international observers as a showcase of the great economic prosperity that has emerged in both nations since the end of the Second Great War, a boom made possible as the continuing phenomenon of industrialization and reduction of trade barriers with their IM allies.
Although initially an Ottoman and Brazilian program, the APF will expand in the coming decades to include volunteers and administrators from all of the IM’s nations.
Meanwhile, in the United States, growing numbers of young Southerners begin to enlist voluntarily in the military. Besides being one of the few well-paying employment opportunities available, many of these new enlistees consider it an act of rebelliousness against their parents’ generation to serve the U.S. in any way.
There’s a great degree of distrust on the part of most military leaders about this new influx of Southern recruits. Up until this point, Southerners had been exempt from the selective service, although officially volunteers were always accepted (a rare phenomenon before the beginning of the current decade). In spite of their fears, there is no major outbreak of anti-U.S. violence on the part of these new soldiers, and such reluctance will have vanished on the part of the government with the advent of the Fourth Pacific War, later in the decade.
July: Riots continue to erupt in townships all over South Africa in the aftermath of the AN Massacre. Both the United States, as well as the Independence Movement increasingly aid the anti-Apartheid groups operating in the country. South African society becomes increasingly militarized in the coming years as a result of this pressure.
A German scientist, Dr. Michael Fleischer, publishes an article detailing the discovery of a new and horrific disease that he discovered while in the Congo. Little noticed at the time of its publishing, the article goes on to describe the side-effects of the virus, which seems to waste away the victim’s immune system. The disease will be known as Fleischer's Syndrome in the coming years throughout the world.
August onward: The Russian government begins to make contingency plans to deal with the emergence of the Veteran’s Patriot Movement in the upcoming elections to the (mostly powerless) Duma. A far-right coalition, mostly of Second Great War veterans, the group is mostly known for their boisterous anti-Socialist, anti-German, and anti-American demonstrations. Unlike the case of the Freedom Party in the old CSA, the Movement is not led by a single charismatic figure, and is known for its frequent inter-party schisms.
The Russian government is in fact more fearful of a resurgence of the old Socialist and Communist parties, which have been long-forced underground by the Tsarist regimes. Recently, they have been publicly blamed for the latest round of strikes, which has sent shockwaves through Moscow.
August 4th: Great Britain grants independence to both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, which subsequently vote to unite as one nation. The Free State of Rhodesia is under white-minority rule, which will cause it a great amount of pressure, both inwardly and from the outside world, especially from the United States and the Independence Movement.
August 15th: The last U.S. soldiers leave Haiti.
August 20th: The German and Austro-Hungarian Empires begin Project Zeus, a covert program to harness fusion power.
September 1st: The Bahamas (including Bermuda), the Sandwich Islands (excluding the militarily-governed Big Island), and Jamaica are admitted into the Union as states. September 29th: In a ceremony at the White House, President Humphrey signs the Environmental and Wilderness Protection Act into law. The new bill dramatically increases the volume of land under Federal control, and establishes dozens of new national parks and national monuments, including several in the former Confederacy and Canada.
October: A new organization based on the Big Island, calling itself “Mormons of the Union” begins to lobby the U.S. government for permission to send out missionaries. In spite of this group's professed and earnest patriotism, these first requests fall on deaf ears. This situation will not change for another couple of decades, until the general relaxing of American society during the late 1970s and ‘80s.
January 1st 1962 onwards: In a New Year’s Day announcement broadcasted to the nation, President Humphrey announces the capture of two notorious (and long-wanted) ex-Confederate war criminals: Albert Wirtz, the former administrator of Camp Defiance, an extermination camp in Louisiana, and Dr. Martin Josephs, who is accused of conducting horrific and pointless “medical” experiments on inmates all over the former Confederacy during the war.
Subsequently, the two men will be tried in New York City, an event that will become the biggest media story in the country throughout the next year, and will have an international impact as well (especially in the German Empire, still reeling from the fallout of the Congo Affair). The trial will also help to spark a new focus in American academia on the Southern Holocaust. For Cassius Madison and his Remembrance Center, this is his biggest triumph to date.
January 31st: The United States and Haiti sign a new treaty affirming their “Special Relationship,” which entails Haiti continuing to use the Dollar as its currency, as well as allowing Haitian citizens to serve in the U.S. military. Haiti therefore enters into a permanent “Compact of Free Alliance” with the USA.
February 3rd, 1962-December 1965 onwards: The Ottoman government begins several massive urban renewal projects aimed at both increasing water and energy efficiency for its fastest growing metropolitan centers and for showcasing its booming economy with the establishment of new public buildings and other facilities. Constantinople, Ankara, Izmir, Beirut, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Kirkuk, Mecca, and Medina will be the beneficiaries of this planned first round of urban rebuilding and expansion. Aleppo, Basra, Mosul, Muscat, Aden, and Hims are scheduled for a second round of renewal, set to begin by 1967 at the latest. This “Great Rebuilding” is meant to revitalize the urban cores of these cities, as well as restoring run-down historical sites, and establishing new parkland and industrial projects. Several foreign architects, many of them Americans, will participate in this series of mega-projects. The Great Rebuilding will not be without controversy, however: the rural poor throughout the Empire will be outraged at the neglect that their villages and towns receive from the government relative to the big cities in these first rounds. Historians and archaeologists express concern that the many building projects will result in the loss of important artifacts in the process, though the government manages to placate their fears by allowing them first access to construction sites.
The Ottoman “Great Rebuilding” will also inspire a similar series of projects by their Brazilian allies later in the decade.
February 15, 1962: In German East Africa, the leaders of several left-wing independence groups and labor organizations come together in Dar es Salaam to found the Tanganyika People’s Union. Advocating both a socialist economic program to eradicate poverty in the colony, as well as greater autonomy for German East Africa, the leadership of the TPU was finally motivated towards greater cooperation by the outrageous revelations from the Congo Affair.
Adhering strictly to non-violence, the TPU quickly begins to attract mass support throughout the colony, especially in the rapidly growing urban centers. The German authorities keep a wary eye on the group, but do nothing to halt its activities, a policy ordered by Berlin to avoid another disaster akin to the Congo Affair. The General Secretary of the TPU, Matthias Nyerere, is a talented organizer, and, by the beginning of 1963, he has established the Union in every major East African city. He begins to lay the groundwork for a possible general strike if their demands for improved wages and greater democratization are not met by the local administration. March 12th: President Humphrey, in a ceremony at the White House, signs the Universal Healthcare for America Act into law. A new single-payer system is implemented by the bill, and will give the United States one of the best healthcare systems in the world.
March 20th: Sonora, Chihuahua, Baja California, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, and Manitoba are admitted into the Union.
May 8th: The American government quietly begins Project Orion, an attempt to replicate the German/Austro-Hungarian plans at harnessing fusion power.
July 14th onwards: Massive anti-Japanese riots erupt in Singapore after the brutal slayings of several labor organizers in the city. Although the Japanese military governor coldly claims that the men were “American agents,” this doesn’t stop the violence from continuing for three days, mostly perpetrated by the Chinese residents of the city, before Japanese troops brought in from nearby Malaysia finally put the disturbances down, killing many civilians in the process.
The Singapore Riots gain the attention of President Humphrey, who condemns the Japanese crackdown the follows the disturbances, which in turn earns him a sharp rebuke from Tokyo. Relations between the two nations, never warm to begin with, begin yet another downward slide.
August onwards: In the Russian Empire, socialists and Veteran’s Patriot Movement activists begin increasingly nasty fighting in the streets, escalating a conflict that has been waging for years. This comes as the leaders of Russia’s underground socialist and labor parties begin planning for a great strike for 1963 to demand economic equality and political liberty.
September 5th: Germany begins to redeploy several brigades of occupation troops from Northwestern France. It’s the start of a drawdown that will end by the start of 1964 with a final end to the military rule in that part of the country, as per the Treaty of Aachen.
October 18th: The prosecution rests in the trial of Albert Wirtz and Martin Josephs.
November 6th: In the Midterm elections, the Socialists maintain their hold on Congress, and gain several seats, especially in the new Caribbean and Canadian states. However, it’s the performance of the Republican Party, long sidelined from power, which startles political observers, which manages to win Congressional seats in several Canadian states, suggesting to some in the GOP that a “Northern Strategy,” of focusing on expanding in the Midwest, the Great Plains, and former Canada might one day win even win them back the White House.
November 9th: The Japanese begin deployment of their two newest carriers, the upgraded Musashi and Shinaro to the Central Pacific, facing the American Custer group out of Pearl Harbor. Many international observers fear a new Pacific War erupting, and President Humphrey is worried that the American-German threat of economic sanctions will not be enough to deter Tokyo from building its own superbombs.
December 19th onwards: Germany and Austria-Hungary begin the construction of a joint rocketry base not far from Dar es Salaam, in German East Africa. The two governments hope to potentially launch satellites from the new base. Taking note of this development, the United States will begin building its own rocketry facility in Cuba by mid-1963.
Second Russian Revolution
January 9th, 1963: Fresh riots erupt across South Africa after the police brutally put down massive (though peaceful) demonstrations in the Gugulethu, Langa, Sharpeville, and Evaton townships (among others), which have been demanding an end to Apartheid. The United States responds by tightening sanctions against the country, while in Germany, several activist organizations begin planning for demonstrations of their own against the Apartheid government, calling for, among other things, their nation to follow America’s lead in placing sanctions upon the country.
January 17th: Ireland’s parliament approves a law that will see the country’s adoption of the U.S. dollar as of January 1, 1970. The move reflects the extremely friendly relationship that exists between the two nations, as the currency change comes on the heels of the United States-Ireland Free Trade Accord, a bilateral agreement signed in Washington at the start of the year that eliminates the few remaining barriers between the two countries.
February 23rd: The defense rests in the trial of Albert Wirtz and Martin Josephs.
April 5th: In New York City, Albert Wirtz and Martin Josephs are both found guilty of perpetuating crimes against humanity, and are sentenced to death.
May 1st, 1963-January, 1964: In Russia, the long-planned General Strike begins, centered in the Empire’s major urban centers. In city after city, workers occupy factories and set up barricades. This uprising has its roots in the widespread resentment that now exists against the government’s perceived disregard for the rights of its subjects, and the poor economic conditions that had been a fact of life since the end of the Second Great War.
In reaction, the government orders in its soldiers to disperse the strikers, only to discover in horror, in confused reports from as far apart as Moscow, Kazan, Tsaritsyn, Ufa, Saratov, Yekaterinburg, Tula, Astrakhan, Novgorod, and Murmansk that mutinies have erupted as well, as certain units refuse to fire on the strikers, and instead turn on their officers. Mutinies even occur in the rebuilt capital of Petrograd, where angry strikers battle against both Cossack guardsmen and Veterans Patriot Front members. These are the first shots in the Second Russian Civil War, which will pit the rebellious military units and socialists against the Tsarist government. The war will also see opportunistic uprisings (supported heavily by the Ottomans) in Russian Central Asia, the first (and largest) of which begin in Kazakhstan as rebels seize control of several urban centers and begin active sabotage of the Trans-Aral Railway. The reactions to this turn of events vary overseas. The American and German governments both urge restraint in dealing with the revolt from Petrograd, while the Japanese quietly decide to aid rebellious groups in the Russian-controlled sectors of Siberia.
In North America, Ontario and Virginia are admitted into the Union. Military rule over the Yukon and Northwest Territories are also turned over to a civilian administration, finally bringing the Occupation of Canada to a close.
In Germany, the planned anti-Apartheid demonstrations are held throughout the country, though many quickly become spontaneous celebrations of solidarity of the Russian General Strike.
In German East Africa, the Tanganyika People’s Union begins its first major round of demonstrations, as industrial, agricultural, and railroad workers clamor for an increase in wages and greater political autonomy. The demonstrators also call for solidarity with anti-Apartheid forces in South Africa, forcing that country’s consulate in Dar es Salaam to close.
May 7th onwards: In a tense private audience at the White House, President Humphrey warns the Japanese ambassador against his country attempting at all any kind of incursion into Siberia. To emphasize this point, Humphrey quietly orders an increase in military units to bases in the Sandwich Isles, Alaska, Wake Island, and British Columbia, as well as the overseas bases in Australia and New Zealand. Some fretful observers speculate that the two nations could come to blows during the course of the Second Russian Civil War, though they will thankfully be proven wrong (this time), as the Japanese do not have any desire, yet, to provoke the United States. Tensions remain high, however.
May 8th onwards: Tsarist officials are forced to flee Moscow, as the original strike in that city has turned into a general uprising, overwhelming loyalist forces.
Viktor Turov, the leader of the Moscow cell, becomes the de-facto leader of the rebels, and in a rousing speech in Red Square, announces the establishment of the Russian Republic, declaring, “Now our long suffering people shall gain the government that they deserve, one that shall not cause them to perish from the face of the Earth.” Historians will later establish the Fall of Moscow as the turning point of the Second Russian Civil War. President Humphrey quietly orders the O.S.S. to begin aiding the rebels, sympathizing with their stated goals to create a liberal and just government and society.
The Germans, by contrast, do nothing, beyond moving additional troops to bases in Belarus, Finland, and Poland (while Austria-Hungary does the same in the Ukraine). The Social Democratic government has little love for the Tsarist regime, and declines to do anything to aid Petrograd in putting down the revolt (though the Russian government was loath to ask for any assistance from its old enemy anyways). The Germans and Austro-Hungarians will look the other way, so to speak, at the American weapons being shipped towards the Republicans over the coming months, however.
Over the next few days, Tsarist forces are also thrown out of Tula, Kazan, Astrakhan, Ufa, Yekaterinburg, Tsaritsyn, Saratov, Cherepovets, Voronezh, and Novgorod, although the Murmansk and Petrograd uprisings are brutally put down.
Massive peasant revolts begin in specific support of the Moscow, Cherepovets, and Novgorod uprisings, further tying down Tsarist troops.
May 12th: The Russian government declares war upon the Ottoman Empire, as news of the huge revolt in Central Asia reaches Petrograd. Fighting soon erupts all along the Russian-Ottoman frontier, though the border with Persia remains quieter, though there are numerous skirmishes.
In response, the Ottomans move more soldiers into Azerbaijan and Chechnya, though no plans are drawn up for an invasion of Russia itself.
May 15th onwards: Ottoman forces in Chechnya repel a major Russian incursion. The Ottomans also manage to blunt a planned Russian offensive into Azerbaijan with a preemptive strike on their enemy’s forward positions. This represents the height of the conflict in this theater of the war, as Tsarist forces are drawn down to deal with the rapidly growing rebellion.
June onwards: Refugees fleeing the fighting in Russia begin to trickle into Belarus, Finland, and Ukraine. Those who can afford to seek asylum at the German or American legations located closest to the war zones.
June-August 1963: Republican forces begin to break out of their urban strongholds, augmented by a steady stream of defecting soldiers and civilian volunteers.
June 1st: Ground is broken on the LaFollette Space Center, near the town of Guantánamo, Cuba. Construction begins a few weeks later on a tracking station in New Mexico that will later serve as the foundation of the future Mission Control.
June 4th: In Russia, Republican forces advancing from Samara capture the city of Ulyanovsk, after a timely mutiny from the city’s garrison.
June 10th: Simultaneous Turkmen, Kyrgyz, Tajik, and Uzbek uprisings (of various levels of strength) begin against the beleaguered Russian government, again sponsored heavily by the Ottomans. This occurs as Republican forces manage to score a shocking victory over an Imperial army in the Battle of Moscow, blunting Petrograd’s hopes to retake the city. The ineptitude of the commanding Tsarist officer, General Alexei Alexandrovich, as well as by the timely defection of one of Alexandrovich’s barrel corps towards the Republican side were the primary causes of the Tsarist defeat, a defeat which will buy the Republicans much needed breathing time to begin planning for their ultimate offensive against Petrograd.
June 11-15th: Taking advantage of their victory in the Battle of Moscow, Republican forces begin a drive towards Ryazan.
June 17th: Ryazan falls to the Republicans, after a brief skirmish.
June 20th: The Siege of Novgorod begins.
June 21st: Vernity [OTL Almaty] falls to Kazakh rebels.
June 24th onwards: Uzbek rebels in newly captured Samarqand declare the establishment of the State of Uzbekistan, which is quickly recognized by the Ottomans, along with the rest of the Independence Movement. The Ottomans also begin massive airdrops of weapons and food supplies to the rebels in the city. Within the next few days, Dushanbe falls to Tajik rebels, who also proclaim their independence.
June 25th: Tsarist forces begin the Siege of Petrozavodsk.
June 26th onwards: Armed with Japanese weapons, a Yakut uprising begins in Siberia. In comparison to the revolts in Central Asia, however, the Yakuts are poorly armed and supplied, and will fail to oust the local authorities during the course of their struggle.
June 29th: A Persian army occupies Ashgabat. Subsequently, an independent Turkmenistan will be proclaimed, though for now, only the member states of the Independence Movement recognize the ad hoc government, as with newly proclaimed Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
July 5th, 1963-August, 1977: The Egyptian government announces its own plans for a “Great Rebuilding,” which will consist, with generous Ottoman support (through the Alliance for Peace and Justice), of both urban renewal to relieve overcrowding and ensure sustainable water and electrical supplies, as well as a mega-project: the creation of an artificial sea in the Qattara Depression, to supply the nation with cheap energy and to spur further industrial development.
Although the urban renewal projects will be completed on schedule, the Qattara mega-project, due to accidents and untimely delays, will not be completed until 1977. Egypt’s Great Rebuilding will be controversial for the same reasons as the Ottoman Empire’s: namely for its neglect of rural areas and the potential threat it poses to artifacts.
July 16th onward: A brief but bloody border war erupts between Bharat and Pakistan over the disputed province of Kashmir. More intense than the previous conflicts waged by the two nations since the end of British rule, the war leads to an emergency meeting of the Independence Movement’s General Assembly in Constantinople, which, at Ottoman prodding, votes to dispatch peacekeepers to Kashmir to separate the two powers. Some 50,000 men from all over the I.M. will be stationed in the region for a decade, before Bharat and Pakistan agree to a final settlement over the province.
July 29th: The first shipment of American weapons arrives in Moscow. The arms are a mixture of surplus Second Great War arms, along with more advanced weaponry. August onwards: Throughout war-torn Russia, banditry begins to rise as civil order breaks down, especially in the countryside. The Republican provisional government’s Auxiliary Police Force (a unit made up primarily of local recruits from newly liberated territory) will bring this outburst of lawlessness under control by the beginning of winter in the areas in which it captures.
August 1st: Tsarist forces crush the rebels in Petrozavodsk, after a brutal siege. However, this comes as Republican armies advancing from the Moscow Pocket capture Nizhniy Novgorod, and begin advancing on the city of Tver.
August 4th onwards: Republican and Tsarist armies clash in the Battle of Tver, which proves to be another decisive battle in the Second Russian Civil War. Armed with the newest American weaponry, which includes advanced barrel destroying rockets (among other things), the Republicans manage to inflict another crushing defeat on the Tsarists, once again aided by timely defections from their enemies, this time from several armored brigades and cavalry squadrons. The Republicans also tighten their grip on the cities and towns along the Volga River, and begin planning in earnest for the final assault on Ptrograd.
The defeat at Tver delivers an almost fatal blow to the embattled Imperial government. A few days after the battle, the Okhrana uncovers a plot by dissident aristocrats to orchestrate a coup against the government, in order to negotiate an end to the fighting.
August 7th: The city of Vyatka [OTL Kirov] goes over to the Republicans after the local garrison stages a successful mutiny.
August 10th: Petrograd breaks off diplomatic relations with both Germany and the United States, over their supposed roles as the “puppet masters” of the Republicans. In spite of this development, American weapons, food, and clothing shipments continue to reach the rebels.
August 12th onwards: Novgorod falls to Tsarist forces, after two months of siege. Thousands of refugees from the immediate war zone begin to flee towards Republican-controlled territory.
August 16th onwards: Smolensk falls to the Republicans, after a bloody battle. The capture of Smolensk will greatly ease the American attempts to aid the rebels, and a huge volume of material begins to flood into Republican hands.
August 22nd: Vologda falls to the Republicans.
September onward: With the onset of autumn, the Republicans begin hastening their plans to move against Petrograd, hoping to capture the capital before the start of winter.
The Republicans also begin finalizing their battle plan against Tsarist forces centered in the city of Krasnodar, in the south.
September 6th: Operation Banner, the Republican drive to Petrograd, begins with the rapid relief of the key industrial center of Cherepovets, which had been under siege since June. Another key defection, this time from one of the Imperial military’s few remaining barrel corps, occurs at this time, led by the ambitious Colonel Vasily Rebikov. This will prove to be a major boon for Operation Banner, and Rebikov will also prove his value at propaganda, becoming well known for his strident radio broadcasts urging Tsarist troops to come over to the Republican fold.
September 16th: Republican forces recapture Novgorod. The hastily assembled Tsarist force sent to drive them from the city is repelled, further diminishing the hopes of government of stemming the rebels’ tide.
September 20th: After a nasty confrontation with his remaining senior generals and advisors, and upon hearing the news that the Republicans will be within reach of Petrograd within days, the Tsar announces his abdication via radio, and leaves with his family and loyal confidants for an exile that will eventually bring them to Switzerland.
September 21st onward: Vasily Rebikov, now promoted to a brevet rank of Brigadier General, enters Petrograd at the head of rebel forces, where he declares the triumph of the Russian Republic, and an end to the war. In fact, the conflict will not end for another four months, as the provisional Republican government is forced to deal with Tsarist forces that refuse to lay down their arms.
Viktor Turov also threatens to continue the war against the Ottomans and Persians unless the two powers end their support for the Central Asian rebellions.
The United States and the German Empire both recognize the Republican administration. The Germans also offer to mediate between the Ottomans and the Turov government, only to be rebuffed by both sides.
Historians will eventually reach a consensus that the main reasons for the rapid Republican success in the Second Civil War included the deep unpopularity of the Tsarist regime, resentment within much of the Russian military over a lack of good pay and anger over the ineptitude of the officer corps stemming from the defeat in the Second Great War, as well as the not inconsequential amounts of American assistance.
September-December: Republican forces begin to move against Tsarist holdouts in the south of Russia and east in Siberia. Plans are also drawn up to bring the rebels in Kazakhstan to heel, though there’s skepticism from Turov’s advisors that all of the Central Asian rebel groups can be defeated, especially in the face of the sheer volume of Ottoman and Persian assistance.
September 23rd: Acting Premier Turov reaffirms, in an announcement to the newly assembled Duma in Moscow, that all political prisoners shut away by the old regime are unconditionally pardoned. Turov also declares that the Russian Republic will hold its own constitutional convention within the next year, before the first free elections are held, to finalize just how the new nation will be governed.
Turov also states that the new capital will be in Moscow, utilizing the excuse that Petrograd is too vulnerable to foreign invaders to be safe place to administer from. September 30th: Republican forces begin the Siege of Krasnodar, which remains the last major Tsarist stronghold in European Russia, after the rapid surrender of both Murmansk and Arkhangelsk in the previous days.
October 5th onwards: As the first Republican scouts enter Siberia from Yekaterinburg, they are surprised to be received, at the city of Tobolsk, by a large number of former government administrators, who admit that they’ve fled from the breakdown of order further east, from both the massive prison uprisings and the Yakut revolt (though they managed to largely put that down).
The former Tsarists agree to recognize the authority of Viktor Turov, ending the conflict in the east. As the revolting political prisoners receive news of Turov’s unconditional pardon, they too lay down their arms in exchange for the amnesty.
November 1st: Albert Wirtz and Martin Josephs are both executed at Castle Williams, New York. Their bodies will be cremated and ashes scattered far out in the Atlantic Ocean, outside of American territorial waters.
November 14th onwards: Krasnodar surrenders to Republican forces, ending the last organized anti-Republican resistance in the south; many Tsarist troops in the city elect to go into exile with their families rather than to swear a loyalty oath to their archenemies. The exiles from Krasnodar will scatter around the world, with most settling either in Austria-Hungary, Germany, or Switzerland.
December 1963 onwards: The fighting in Russian Central Asia remains in a stalemate; although Republican forces (led by General Rebikov), have managed to re-capture the city of Akmolinsk [OTL Astana] from the Kazakh rebels, the harsh winter, combined with long supply lines and the ongoing threat of a guerilla morass means that no progress is possible until spring at the earliest. Premier Turov bitterly begins to see that it will be next to impossible to crush the Central Asian rebels, especially with their heavy support from the Ottomans and Persians.
Turov consequently quietly meets with the new German ambassador, and informs him that he is willing to negotiate a final end to the fighting. This also reflects the general attitude of war weariness from most of the Russian population, and the strain that continuing the war would put on the new government’s resources.
Throughout this month, low-level talks will be held in the Berlin suburb of Potsdam between the Ottomans and Russians, with the Germans mediating. A final agreement will not be reached until January of 1964, however.
December 31st: The German and Austro-Hungarian governments announce the successful completion of the Lettow-Vorbeck Rocketry Base, in German East Africa, on the outskirts of Dar es Salaam. Both nations hope to launch a satellite from the new facility at the earliest possible date.
The American construction of the LaFollete Space Center in Cuba is naturally accelerated, although President Humphrey’s scientific advisors caution him to avoid rushing to launch anything before the device is confirmed to be working properly.
Rise of the Russian Republic
January 1st, 1964 onwards: The last German soldiers are withdrawn from Northwestern France, ending the twenty-year military occupation of the strategic region.
The British and French economies, burdened by the high costs of rebuilding and paying restitutions to the Central Powers, also begin what will be known as their “faster recoveries” this year, as American, German, and Austro-Hungarian firms begin to increase their business in the two nations, though it will still be many years before prewar levels of prosperity are reached.
January 10th onwards: The Treaty of Potsdam ends the fighting between the Russian Republic and the Ottoman and Persian Empires. The Ottomans and Persians agree to recognize the ceasefire line as the new international boundaries. The Russians, however, refuse to recognize the independence of the newly proclaimed nations of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan (whose northern half has largely been occupied by Moscow), Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, or Turkmenistan. They also threaten to renew hostilities if any foreign troops are deployed to this region. This will not stop the Ottomans from supplying the new countries (who immediately join the Independence Movement in the days after the Treaty is signed) with weapons and advisors to train their new militaries, however.
January 19th onwards: Several Russian envoys arrive in Washington, D.C. for a meeting with President Humphrey. In the first of what will be several meetings, the Americans and the Russians eventually come to some major agreements:
The United States will sign a security agreement with the Russian Republic that will see American advisors assigned to train their new “Grand Army of the Republic.” America also agrees to sell certain weapons to Russia, and the technologies necessary to manufacture them.
In exchange a reduction in trade barriers, and vital American shipments of high technology, Russia agrees to finally recognize the U.S. jurisdiction over Alaska. The meetings aren’t without tension, however: President Humphrey refuses to offer any assistance for what the Russians claim is a “peaceful” nuclear program, out of fears of creating a wide rift with the Germans. The Russians in turn refuse an offer of ascension into the Compact of Democratic States.
In a separate development, the end of the Second Russian Civil War will see the beginnings of a long period of rapid economic expansion for the Russian Republic, as that nation becomes a major competitor with the German Empire and even, in the long term, with the United States. This growth is primarily driven by rapid industrialization, mineral extraction, and the reduction of trade barriers with America.
January 29th -February 9th: The Ninth Winter Olympics are held in Innsbruck, Austria-Hungary.
February onwards: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bengal, Bharat, Ethiopia, Hyderabad, Kenya, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Persia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Uganda announce their own “Great Rebuilding” programs, in imitation of the previously announced Ottoman and Egyptian projects. The Persians will become notable for their refusal to accept funding from the Alliance for Peace and Friendship to complete their goals (which includes a dramatic expansion and rebuilding of the ports of Abadan and Bandar Abbas, and massive urban renewal and restoration projects), funding them instead through their own oil revenue.
February 1st: Russia’s Constitutional Convention opens in Moscow, with Premier Turov presiding over the day’s events. Turov reminds the Convention’s attendants, a mixture some of the nation’s most distinguished minds, that, “Let us ensure that future generations thank us for this momentous day; the eyes of everyone are upon you.”
March onwards: The first cases of what will later be designated as Fleischer’s Syndrome are diagnosed outside of Africa, in Hamburg, Germany. The victims, a sea captain and his family, had been suffering from extensive skin lesions, and all ultimately die due to failures in their respective immune systems.
Throughout 1964 and into 1965, similar cases are diagnosed by hospitals in Wilhelmshaven, Bremen, and Danzig. Dr. Fleischer himself will be appointed by the government to head a task force to investigate the deaths, and will reach a horrifying conclusion by early 1965 that this outbreak is similar to what he witnessed in the Congo.
March 7th: The first American advisors arrive in Russia, where they begin a vigorous training program for the Republic’s planned Grand Army. Despite Moscow’s assurances that this new force will respect the Treaty of Aachen’s restrictions in terms of size, and its assertions that a professional force is needed due to the Japanese and Ottoman “looming dangers,” Germany reacts negatively to this development, and protests (in vain) to Washington to annul the deal.
March 27th: The Great Alaska Earthquake ravages the south-central portions of Alaska Territory, severely damaging Alaska City [OTL Anchorage] and killing almost 100 people.
April 2nd onwards: In the first of a series of summits commissioned by President Rodrigo Salgueiro in Lisbon, the Portuguese government begins discussing the possibilities of reforming its empire, in light of the protest movements that have sprung up in southern and east Africa.
April 8th onwards: The German government, increasingly worried at the long-term projections that show their nation becoming more and more reliant on foreign sources of petroleum (especially from the Ottoman Empire and Russia, and even the United States), approves a new plan at a cabinet meeting to invest increasingly in nuclear, solar, and wind technology. Joint projects with Austria-Hungary will also be pursued, in line with existing plans such as Project Zeus.
May 1st: After a year of strikes and mass rallies, the German administration (with Berlin’s approval) in Tanganyika agrees to many of the TPU’s economic demands, including the creation of a “minimum wage,” along with numerous urban improvement projects throughout the colony (to relieve congestion and to ease the crippling poverty that exists in both the big cities and the shantytowns that surround them). In Berlin, the Reichstag begins debate on legislation that would devalue numerous powers in the colony to a “Advisory Council.” However, in spite of these victories, Mathias Neyere vows to continue demonstrations until full autonomy is granted to German East Africa, and ultimately, “until our people can gain control over our own limitless futures.”
In Rhodesia, police brutally disperse peaceful protests in Salisbury, Bulawayo, Lusaka, and Livingstone calling for greater political and economic freedoms. The events, led by the Methodist preacher Josiah T. Muzorewa and his newly created Rhodesian People’s Union (RPU), are directly inspired by the developments in German East Africa, and the continuing protests rocking South Africa. However, in addition to his struggles against the ruling government in Salisbury, Muzorewa has to contend with a very vocal militant wing in the RPU that advocates armed struggle over nonviolent protests. Muzorewa himself is arrested for the first time after this first round of protests, though this only brings the Rhodesian government strong protests from the Americans, Ottomans, and Brazilians.
May 9th onwards: The Germans and Austro-Hungarians launch the world’s first satellite (which they name “Frederick the Great”) into space, where it will orbit the Earth for four years before destructing in the atmosphere.
This causes something of an uproar in the United States, as major political and media figures angrily question why America always seems to be one step behind the Germans and Austro-Hungarians (first in nuclear and now space-borne technology).
In response to this, Congress will pass several major pieces of legislation; these include so-called “Scientific Advancement for America Act,” (which will dramatically increase funding for new math and science course in the nation’s schools and universities), and the American Aeronautics Act, which establishes the United States Aeronautics and Interplanetary Agency (USAIA), to oversee and coordinate all space-related projects.
May 15th onwards: In Constantinople, Ottoman and Brazilian officials announce that the Independence Movement will construct two rocketry bases—one somewhere in the Arabian Peninsula, and the other in Brazil’s Bahia Province.
This announcement, made in reaction to the launch of “Frederick the Great,” has been a long time in coming; there had been an unusually acrimonious series of meetings between the Brazilians and Ottomans as to where the Independence Movement’s prospective space program would be located, before the belated compromise of two bases was agreed to. Ultimately, it is hoped that this will give the I.M. something of a strategic edge over anything that the Americans, Germans, or Japanese come ultimately decide to pursue. Construction will begin on the two bases in early 1965, with the groundbreaking ceremony dramatically pushed forward.
Meanwhile, the Japanese begin planning to build a rocketry base of their own, somewhere in the Philippines. Ultimately, Tayabas Bay will be the site of their base, and construction will begin in late 1965.
June 16th: Construction of the La Follette Space Center is completed in Cuba. The tracking center, at Santa Fe, New Mexico, will be finished in January of 1965.
July 4th: President Humphrey, in a ceremony at the White House, marks Independence Day with the signing of the Clean America Act, which mandates strict air and water pollution controls, creates a new government agency to enforce environmental laws (the American Environmental Bureau, or AEB), and mandates funds for urban beautification and development projects. The Act also adds even more land under Federal protection, establishing another ten national parks and national monuments in the process. As the President remarks at the ceremony, “There is no better way to celebrate our heritage and values than by protecting the very lands and waterways which made our nation a possibility in the first place.”
July 17th onwards: American and German officials gather in both New York and Berlin to celebrate the inauguration of the new supersonic Eagle Airways, a joint project between the two nations that had been in development since the Truman Administration. Eagle Airways will become most notable for greatly reducing the flight time between the two cities, utilizing the latest cutting edge turbojet technology in the process.
Eagle Airways will prove to be very popular amongst the increasingly science and technology infatuated public on both sides of the Atlantic (coming into service in the same climate as the Space Race, after all). It will later be expanded to include flights reaching Washington, Philadelphia, Boston, Hamburg, Munich, Vienna, and Budapest.
August 31st onward: With assistance from the O.S.S., agents from Cassius Madison’s Remembrance Center manage to capture the notorious Freedom Party Guard colonel Kurt Barnaby, known as the “Butcher of the Caribbean” for his work overseeing the destruction of Haiti’s population. Caught in Peru and handed over to Haiti, Barnaby will be tried in Port-au-Prince, the verdict a forgone conclusion.
September 5th: Ground is broken, symbolically, at the sites of what will one day be the Crescent Star Base, near the town of Al Mukalla in the Ottoman Empire, and the Atlantic Star Center (outside of the Brazilian city of Salvador). Tracking stations will also be built in support of the new facilities, in Aden and Porto Seguro, respectively.
October 1st: onwards:The Russian Republic’s Constitutional Convention comes to a close in Moscow. The newly ratified document includes:
- The guarantee of religious liberty (including the separation of church and state), freedom of assembly, and freedom of speech.
- The outlawing of torture, all “cruel and unusual punishment,” the death penalty, and the secret police.
The Republic will be led by a President, elected to one seven year term by the Duma. The Duma itself will have the ability to remove the President from office with three quarters support, while the President, in turn, will have the ability to veto unliked legislation (though that too, can be overridden). An independent judiciary will be established as well, consisting of judges nominated by the President for lifetime appointments, and approved by the Duma.
The old Russian Empire’s provinces will be reorganized into more manageable entities. The elections for the First Duma will be in February. Observers expect that the Socialist Party (led by Turov), will easily win the contest, given that their only real competitors are from the more radical Communist Party. In the meantime, Vasily Rebikov announces (after resigning from the army) that he will stand as the Socialist Party’s candidate to represent his home district in Moscow (opposite Turov, who represents another district in the new capital).
Smaller anarchist, ethnic-based, and nationalist parties also announce that they will compete, though the vast majority of observers don’t give them much hope at all in picking up more than a few seats.
October 10-24th: The twenty-eighth Olympiad is held in Tokyo, Japan. Due to the rising tensions between the United States and the Japanese Empire (along with other political tensions which exist across the globe), the Tokyo Olympics will be remembered for being perhaps the most politically charged international sporting event since the 1936 Richmond games. This is evident in the particular acrimony that exists between the American and Japanese athletes, as well as between the Russians and Ottomans.
In another development, due to respective pressure from the Independence Movement members, as well as the United States, the International Olympic Committee bans South Africa from competing in the games, because of that nation’s refusal to desegregate its team.
November 3rd: President Humphrey and Vice President Magnuson win an easy reelection victory over their opponents, the Democratic Governor of Massachusetts, Henry Lodge, Jr., and Republican Congressman Walter Judd of Minnesota. The booming economy (continuing its long post-Second Great War expansion), and President Humphrey’s numerous domestic achievements made the overall campaign a fairly placid one, with the outcome long expected.
The Socialist Party continues its hold on Congress, and actually gains a number of seats (particularly in the new Canadian states), though the Democrats also gain in Congress, thanks to the recent readmission of Virginia. The Republicans also manage to pick up a few additional seats in the Midwest and former Canada, though this will not be nearly enough to make much of an impact, yet.
December 5th: In Berlin, the Reichstag begins preliminary debates on the government’s proposed Energies Security Act.
January 1st, 1965: In Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian government announces the beginnings of its own “Great Rebuilding” projects. Although most will consist of slum clearance operations, the centerpiece of the Brazilian Great Rebuilding will be the construction of a new capital city, in the interior of the nation, in the Brazilian Highlands: Salvação [Salvation (OTL Brasilia, more or less)]. It is meant to showcase Brazil’s status as a Great Power.
Within the next few days, Brazil’s South American allies (and fellow Independence Movement associates)—Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela all announce their own “Great Rebuilding” initiatives. Among the most notable will be Colombia’s Isthmus Canal [OTL Panama Canal], which will not be completed until 1972. It is meant to compete with America’s own Nicaragua Canal, as well as a way to generate a larger volume of revenue.
January 2nd: Advisors from the Ottoman Empire arrive in the newly independent Central Asian nations to begin training armies for their new allies. However, no permanent bases are planned in this region, for fear of renewing conflict with the Russian Republic.
January 4th: The first American advisors arrive in Russia to begin training of the country’s planned Grand Army. At the same time, a number of Russian officers are brought to West Point for more specialized training.
January 7th onwards: In Berlin, the Fleischer Commission releases its findings to the government, declaring that the mysterious illnesses emerging in German ports is similar, if not the same disease which Dr. Michael Fleischer himself first discovered in the Congo. The Commission recommends both the development of a plan to contain the disease before it spreads further, and the mounting of a permanent expedition to Mittelafrika to further investigate the virus’s source.
Subsequently, German officials alert their American counterparts about the threat potentially posed by Fleischer’s Syndrome. The new Department of Health will begin conducting investigations of its own starting this year, and will uncover numerous cases similar to those discovered in Germany.
January 20th: In his second inaugural address, President Humphrey pledges to continue his enhancement of America’s space program, as well as hastening the readmission of the former Confederate states. Though much of the speech focuses on domestic issues, observers note veiled criticisms apparently directed towards the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, along with explicit denunciations of the regimes governing both South Africa and Rhodesia.
January 21st: In reaction to President Humphrey’s address, Rhodesia breaks off diplomatic relations with the United States. In retaliation, Congress will pass sanctions on that country similar to those already in place against South Africa.
January 25th onwards: The Reichstag, after much debate, passes the Energy Securities Act: among other things, this Act funds the construction of a number of new nuclear power plants, and invests heavily in both electric and hydrogen vehicle technology. It also funds what will become the Empire’s first solar stations, near Windhoek, Lüderitz, and Gaborone respectively, in German Southwest Africa.
Within the next three months, Austria-Hungary will approve of similar legislation, out of the same fears that prompted the German move. Over the next few years, a number of other members of the European Community, including Bulgaria, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden (among others), will begin their own versions of the Energies Securities Act.
January 31st: The Ottoman Empire begins the building of their Crescent Star Base, near the town of Al Mukalla.
February 1st: Construction begins on the Empire of Brazil’s Atlantic Star Center, near the city of Salvador.
February 2nd: In the first national elections of the Russian Republic, the Socialist Party wins an expected landslide victory, winning over seventy percent of the seats up for grabs in the Duma. The remainder is split between the Communist Party and the negligible anarchist, nationalist, and ethnic-based parties. Subsequently, Viktor Turov will be confirmed as President by the Duma. Vasily Rebikov will be among those voting for him, having won his own Moscow race.
President Turov will spend his first year in office laying the groundwork for this three main initiatives: a distribution plan to relieve the plight of the peasantry by encouraging greater ownership of land, a massive public works program to relieve unemployment and to remove urban blight, and the modernization of the Republic’s military (enhanced with American assistance).
February 23rd onwards: Construction begins in New York City’s Lower East Side on the nation’s first “Farming Tower Complex,” a radical innovation in urban design that is funded by the Clean America Act (along with multiple renovation projects, expansion of parkland, and the like in the metropolis).
This building, the Flora Blackford Towers, named after the Lower East Side’s famous (and now retired) representative (and designed by her acquaintance, retired Captain Alex Schwartz), will be opened for residency in January of 1968 for its first tenants. Its building (along with the other such projects approved for the city), reflects the growing worry of local politicians about the dangers of congestion, air pollution, and lack of food. Besides serving as a residential complex, the FBT will also have its own gardening center, and will be within walking distance of a farmer’s market.
Besides New York, the cities of Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Denver, Detroit, Havana, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Portland, San Francisco, Seattle, St. Louis, St. Paul, Toronto, Washington, D.C., Winnipeg, and Vancouver will all develop similar “Urban Farming” projects of their own during this time period.
March: The Russian government, as part of both its public works and military modernization program, at long last begins a laborious expansion and enhancement of the uncompleted New Siberian Railway (which is supposed to end in Magadan).
March 17th: The first members of the newly established Fleischer Research Institute arrive in Wilhelmsville [OTL Kinshasa], where they begin planning their first field trips to discover the source of Fleischer’s Syndrome.
April onwards: The German Empire begins its national plan to quarantine cases of Fleischer’s Syndrome.
April 1st onwards: In Togoland, one of the wealthiest of Germany’s colonial territories, a new organization—Togoland United—is launched in the city of Lome. It calls for a referendum on the colony’s future association with Germany, with the only options being either full political integration with Berlin, or else independence.
Although the TU starts off a small movement, support soon builds, thanks to the backing given by the wealthiest citizens in the colony, although a referendum on the colony’s future will not occur until the very end of the decade.
Over the next year, mirroring the political activities of Togoland United, similar organizations (of varying strength are established in the German West African colonies of Dahomey [OTL Benin], Goldene Küste [OTL Ghana], Elfenbeinkuste [OTL Côte d'Ivoire], Kamerun [OTL Cameroon], Senegambia [OTL Senegal and the Gambia], and Sierra Leone.
April 11th: With the imprisonment of Josiah Muzorewa, the militant wing of the Rhodesia People’s Union spits away from the main body of the civil rights organization to create the Revolutionary Army of Southern Africa (Revolutionary Army for short). It is led by Muzorewa’s rival in the RPU, Thomas Sithole. This marks the beginning of the so-called “Turbulence,” a low-level guerilla war against the Rhodesian government (assisted by the Independence Movement, especially by the Ottoman Empire), which will last until the end of the decade.
April 23rd onwards: Congress authorizes funds to allow for the construction of a causeway linking Cuba and Florida. Pushed hard by Cuba’s Congressional delegation, this mega-project will not begin construction until 1970, due to the enormous technical and logistical challenges of the task ahead. The Caribbean Causeway will utilize a radical design: a floating tunnel, anchored to the seabed.
April 29th: In Moscow, Viktor Turov convenes a secret meeting of his nation’s most prominent physicians and engineers to discuss his plans for a Russian space agency. Disillusioned upon hearing precisely what such a proposal would cost (on top of all of his other plans), Turov begins to ponder combining Russia’s efforts with the American program.
May 1st: In the German Congo, an Advisory Council is established in Wilhelmsville, as part of the gradual transformation in that colony since the exposure of the Congo Affair. Johannes Kasa-Vubu, a Berlin educated theologian and lawyer, is appointed as the first “First Citizen Advisor” of the Congo’s AC. In Tanganyika, Matthias Neyere addresses a rally of what some reporters claim is at least 200,000 people, in Dar es Salaam, where he calls for the immediate establishment of a similar institution for German East Africa. In fact, the Reichstag is in the process of considering implementing just such a plan, though it will not be established for another couple of years. Throughout the Co-Prosperity Sphere, Japanese troops brutally put down attempted demonstrations (organized by socialists and labor leaders) that erupt in Hong Kong, Singapore, Shanghai, and Tsingtao. This reflects the simmering unrest that has continued in many of Japan’s overseas territories since the end of the Second Great War. As in the case of the Singapore Riots, Tokyo is quick to blame the United States for being the instigator of these “disturbances,” with gets the Japanese government a cold denial from the Humphrey Administration in turn.
May 14th: President Humphrey announces two new programs to further bind the nations of the Compact of Democratic States together: the Conservation Corps and the Farmer’s Corps, which will send volunteers to work on agricultural and conservation projects, respectively, in the poorer regions of the CDS. Observers are quick to note its similarities to the Ottoman-Brazilian Alliance for Peace and Friendship, though in fact the mandates of these two programs are much more limited in scope, for now at least.
May 19th: Germany and Austria-Hungary shock the world by launching a second satellite from Tanganyika—the “Franz Josef.” American plans to launch their first satellite are appropriately accelerated.
June 1st onwards: The Portuguese government, after over a year of intensive meetings regarding the future of the empire, formally announces that a commission, convened in Lisbon, will now be established to decide on the best course of action for reform. One idea that has gotten the most traction so far consist of either transforming the empire into more of a federation, with extensive local autonomy granted. The Lisbon Commission will make its recommendations in January of 1966. June 17th: The New England Journal of Medicine mentions Fleischer’s Syndrome for the first time, and details several cases that have emerged in New York City, Philadelphia, and St. Louis which resemble those reported in Germany.
July 4th: The first American satellite, the “Theodore Roosevelt,” is successfully launched from the La Follete Space Center, with President Humphrey and Vice President Magnuson in attendance. This comes after a nerve-wracking series of checks to ensure the device is in proper condition, which will later be shown in excruciating detail in the 1995 comic-drama To Infinity on the Fourth of July.
August 1st: In the United States, Arkansas, Georgia, and Louisiana are readmitted into the Union.
August 6th onwards: Italian architect Guiseppe Sant’Elia  proposes the building of a “Città Giardino” [Garden City], as part of a government sponsored contest for the urban renewal of Rome (a mega-project to showcase a roaring economy, and made possible by the oil revenue extracted from North Africa). The Garden City concept would be a radical design, which would turn vast stretches of the Italian capital into wide boulevards and brightly colored skyscrapers, coupled with the establishment of wide swaths of parkland in all available space (not unlike the Urban Farming projects under construction in the United States). Although this design is rejected in the contest, Sant’Elia will later bring his ideas to the Empire of Brazil, where several of his concepts will be used in that country’s Great Rebuilding projects. The idea of “Garden Cities” will be proposed in the coming years separately in Austria-Hungary, Bengal, Bharat, Germany, and Japan, though not all proposals will be constructed.
August 23-30th: In Washington, scientists working for the newly established USAIA, begin a series of discussions on the best way to catch up the joint German-Austro-Hungarian space program. It is formally decided at these meetings to attempt the first Moon landing. Inspired by a quiet proposal from Moscow for a joint U.S.-Russian effort at space exploration, it is decided to invite all other member states of the C.D.S. to contribute their best scientists and engineers to work for the USAIA.
September onwards: Massive oil deposits are discovered by a Norwegian surveying company in the North Sea. Subsequently, an agreement signed in Berlin between German, Norwegian, Dutch, and British representatives will result in the establishment of the North Sea Petrol Authority (NSPA), to guarantee equal shares in revenue between the four countries.
September 1st-7th: The German and Austro-Hungarian governments begin a discussion of their own, held in Budapest, called the “Space Summit” by the press in both nations. The purpose of this meeting is to plan out a coherent pathway for their combined space program. In the end, it is agreed to attempt a Moon landing by 1980 at the very latest.
To increase their lead over the other major powers even further in the field of space exploration (and inadvertently mirroring the American proposed pan-C.D.S. program), all member-states of the European Community—even Britain and France—will be invited to send scientists to a combined space program, to be established within the next year.
September 16th: President Humphrey and Cassius Madison both speak at the dedication ceremony in Washington, D.C. marking the opening of the United States Holocaust Museum, meant to honor and remember the victims of the former Confederacy.
October onwards: In what historians will later dub the “Cape Town Mercy Mission,” some 10,000 refugees displaced by the ever-growing breakdown of civic order in the Republic of South Africa are evacuated from the city of Cape Town by an American expeditionary force (an event made possible due to a deal brokered quietly between American and South African envoys). Most of the evacuees from this first mercy mission will be resettled throughout the Southwest of the United States. This is a foreshadowing of the Great Evacuations that will begin in earnest later this decade, as South Africa continues its descent into violence.
October 22nd onwards: At the University of Budapest, an engineering student named Bernard Polgar submits a paper in which he proposes a “combine” of computers to better coordinate military defenses. Polagar’s ideas will soon be picked up by the Austro-Hungarian and German militaries, and the young student will immediately be hired by the Austria-Hungarian Ministry for War to refine his ideas further.
November 12th: The Japanese begin construction of their rocketry base at Tayabas Bay, in the Philippines.
November 29th onwards: In the Ottoman Empire, as part of the Great Rebuilding, construction begins on the planned city of Bu Kaynak [the source] next to the city of Konya, in Anatolia. Initially meant to serve solely as a university town, Bu Kaynak will eventually gain the distinction in the 1970s as the first city in the world powered primarily by solar power.
December: In the United States, the Department of Health begins a plan approved by the White House to quarantine suspected cases of Fleischer’s Syndrome.
December 20-25th: President Viktor Turov becomes the first leader of Russia to visit the United States, spending Christmas Day at the White House as a guest of President Humphrey. The two leaders, at the “Christmas Summit,” earnestly discuss the possibilities of Russia joining the planned C.D.S. space program, as well as the new increased exchanges in technology and culture proposed by President Humphrey. In a signed agreement, Turov agrees to allow both the Farmer’s Corps and the Conservation Corps to send volunteers to his nation as an, “act of goodwill between our two great republics.”
In private, the two leaders spend most of their time discussing the possibilities of the Russian Republic entering any hypothetical war between the C.D.S. and the Co-Prosperity Sphere on America’s side, though Turov insists that his nation requires more assistance in training and outfitting its Grand Army if Russia is to be of any help.
War against the Empire of Japan
International Health Organization
January, 1966 onwards: Due to the ongoing violence of the Rhodesian Turbulence, thousands of refugees, both Shona and Ndebele for the most part, begin filtering into Portuguese Angola and Mozambique, as well as into German East Africa and the Congo. Most languish for many months in squalid camps. By the end of the year, the United States, the Ottoman Empire, and the Empire of Brazil all offer to take in those displaced by the fighting, with some 90,000 leaving for these three nations by the end of 1966. Altogether, the Americans, Ottomans, and Brazilians will accept some two million refugees from Rhodesia by the time the Turbulence comes to an end in 1970.
January 2nd onwards: In Portugal, the Lisbon Commission releases its recommendations for the reform of the empire to the general public. Under the “Lisbon Plan,” the empire will gradually be decentralized, with many powers to be delegated to local governments, though all areas of the empire will continue to send representatives to Lisbon, with diplomatic and military affairs remaining under the jurisdiction of Portuguese government. The Commission recommends massive investments in urban renewal and other infrastructure projects, as well as the full enfranchisement for all living in the colonies. Finally, according to the Commission, the Portuguese Empire should be reformed as a “Portuguese Federation” [“Federação Portuguesa”] by no later than 1980.
Over the next decade and a half, most of the Commission’s goals will be implemented via the Lisbon Plan. The discovery of oil both in Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe later in the decade will greatly assist in these endeavors. The projects undertaken by the Lisbon Plan do succeed ultimately in blunting support within the Portuguese Empire for violent independence movements in the vein of groups operating within Rhodesia and South Africa, though TPU-inspired organizations do and will continue to pressure Lisbon for the promised economic and political benefits in both Angola and Mozambique.
The Lisbon Commission’s activities and recommendations will also influence other European powers in their transformations of their colonial empires in the coming years, most notably Germany.
January 14th: The Rhodesian government rejects yet another request by the Americans, Ottomans, and Brazilians to release Josiah Muzorewa from prison, claiming falsely that he’s one and the same with the militant ring of the former Rhodesian People’s Union.
January 29th-April: The leaders of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda, along with representatives from the Ottoman Empire, attend the groundbreaking ceremony of the Ottoman funded Addis Ababa-Malindi Railroad, a new route designed to link the Ethiopian capital with the Indian Ocean, and notable for its usage of the newer, faster generation of “cylinder” trains borrowed from the Germans and Austro-Hungarians. The new railroad also mirrors a similar ongoing project to connect Addis Ababa with Khartoum, Sudan. The two projects will be completed by 1972.
February 21st onwards: In Tokyo, General Ishii Yamada is named to head a new military government. General Ishii, who is very anti-American, represents the coming of age of a new generation of Japanese military officers, who, for the most part, are eager to prove themselves in an “End Struggle” with the Americans and the C.D.S. for control of the Pacific. However, not all within the command of the Japanese military agrees with a new confrontational approach. In particular, the Navy’s leadership is hesitant at facing the massive U.S. Pacific Fleet, to say nothing of a general fear that’s present in all quarters resulting from the fact that in any war, the Americans would no longer be distracted in North America, as well as the clear and present danger of the U.S. superbomb arsenal. Nonetheless, General Ishii himself disregards any notion of hesitating from a possible confrontation, believing that the United States is too fragmented and fundamentally weak to be of any real concern. Ishii also orders the acceleration of the Japanese program to build and test a superbomb, which previous governments had allowed to fall by the wayside, over the fear that its success would invite instant American or German retaliation. In reaction to the political ascent of General Ishii, President Humphrey will order, over the following weeks, the deployment of over 50,000 new soldiers to Australia and New Zealand, as well as to additional bases in Alaska, the Sandwich Isles, and throughout the U.S. Pacific island territories. For their part, the Germans also deploy a sizable number of troops to their portion of New Guinea, as well to the Bismarck Archipelago. In a private audience with the Japanese Ambassador in Berlin, the Chancellor warns that any attack on Germany’s Pacific territories will result in the fullest retaliation.
February 28th: Construction begins in Bharat, as part of that nation’s Great Rebuilding efforts, on the planned metropolis of Navi Mumbai, which is designed in part utilizing some of the designs of Italian architect Giuseppe Sant’Elia. Navi Mumbai is planned to eventually be home to some three million people, and will include vast areas of forest and parkland to compliment its new buildings.
March onwards: The O.S.S. begins to increase gunrunning operations to the assorted Chinese resistance organizations operating against the Japanese. The largest beneficiary of this new wave of U.S. assistance is the National Reconstruction Army, based in the city of Xian, and led in China by General Zhuang Lin, and in turn represented in the United States by John Lu, through the Chinese-American Alliance, an organization dedicated to supporting newly arrived Chinese immigrants, and lobbying the U.S. government for tougher actions against the Japanese Empire.
March 7th: In reaction to a speech two days earlier by General Ishii promising a “Final Reckoning” regarding the “Siberian Incidents,” Russian President Viktor Turov announces that the Russian Republic will formally re-introduce conscription, beginning in early 1967. Privately, he moves to re-assure the German and Austro-Hungarian ambassadors that he will not deploy these new reserves to their respective borders, insisting that this buildup is necessary to contain any potentially offensive moves on the part of the Japanese Empire. Turov also orders the redoubling of training and equipping for the Grand Army of the Republic, which will now form the core of a rebuilt Russian military. The Russians also begin, with some American assistance, a modernization effort aimed at their air force.
April 10th onwards: An outbreak of what will later be identified as the Heidelberg virus [Our world’s Marburg virus, more or less] begins near the town amongst the staff of a laboratory, ultimately killing five people. In Berlin, the Fleisher Commission is reconvened (minus Dr. Fleisher himself, who remains in the Congo researching the Syndrome which bears his name) ten days later, this time regarding the spread of infectious diseases from outside Germany’s borders. The Second Fleisher Commission will ultimately recommend to the government: The permanent stationing of a major research center in the Congo to identify infectious diseases before they can become a threat, based around the new institute established in Wilhelmsville by Dr. Fleisher.
The creation and coordination of an international agency to stop epidemics and pandemics—an International Health Organization (I.H.O.), which will consist of a rapid reaction team of doctors and scientists on permanent standby to respond to outbreaks.
April 14th: Australia and New Zealand both sever diplomatic relations with the Japanese Empire, after General Ishii gives a rousing, belligerent speech to cadets at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in which he belittles and insults both nations (as well as the C.D.S. in general), promising that they, “…will not last the century.”
April 23-28th onwards: Russian troops in Siberia clash with soldiers from the Japanese Kwantung Army in a series of skirmishes. Both Tokyo and Moscow begin to move increasing numbers of men and material to the region in reaction to these border clashes, with the Russians led by the gifted barrel commander General Leonid Golovin, and the Japanese under the command of the Second Great War veteran Ikeda Yukio.
May 1st onwards: Fresh waves of May Day protests occur throughout a number of cities in Japanese-occupied China, as well as in Singapore and Jakarta. Japanese forces, as in the case of previous demonstrations, are ruthless in putting them down, drawing yet another strong condemnation from President Humphrey. This coincides with an unexpected uprising in the puppet kingdom of Manchukuo, where huge anti-Japanese protests erupt in the capital of Hsinking [OTL Changchun], as well as in Harbin and Mukden [OTL Shenyang] for over five days, before they are dispersed—this is similar to the nationalist demonstrations which emerge, seemingly out of nowhere, but in fact long planned, by nationalist groups in the Empire of Indochina against that nation’s puppet government, before they are too are ruthlessly broken up after almost a full week. General Ishii echoes his predecessor’s claims that all of these developments are the result of “perfidious American conspiracies.”
In the meantime, Matthias Neyere holds another major rally in Dar es Salaam, reiterating his political and economic goals, though attendance is down slightly this year, due to Berlin’s recent announcements that German East Africa will gain its own Advisory Council beginning in 1968.
May 5th: In a meeting with the German Ambassador, President Humphrey expresses his willingness to involve the United States in the proposed International Health Organization, to which he promises to bring participation in the I.H.O. up with the member-states of the C.D.S. The President also brings up his personal hope that the creation of the I.H.O. could lead to an international accord formally outlawing all chemical and biological weapons programs.
May 10th: In Bengal, a new wing of the country’s dominant Socialist Party comes into power, led by Shibram Chakraborty. Chakraborty and his followers represent a growing pro-C.D.S. trend within Bengali political circles and society, with the United States being seen as an ideal counterweight towards the potentially looming threat of the Co-Prosperity Sphere. The USA has long been held in high esteem in Bengal, due to the critical assistance that was granted by the Americans during the second half of the 1940s when a devastating famine struck the region.
May 16-18th onwards: The Germans and Austro-Hungarians launch two new satellites—the “Maria Theresa” and the “Otto von Bismarck”— from Tanganyika. In Berlin, Vienna, and Budapest, plans are finalized for the first manned launch into Outer Space, in either 1969 or 1970.
May 27th: A joint Ethiopian-Ottoman scientific team, working for the University of Baghdad, discovers the bone fragments near the Ethiopian village of Hadar of what turns out to be the oldest-yet discovered skeleton of a human ancestor. Named “dinqineš” by the team, the discovery will fuel an international interest amongst both scientists and the general public about the origins of humanity. June 3-10th onwards: In Washington, D.C., the Administrator of USAIA, General Michael Root, formally announces that the Russian Republic will be invited to participate in the pan-C.D.S. space program. President Turov immediately responds positively to the announcement, stating that space represents, “…the best opportunity to facilitate wider human cooperation, after so much global hatred and strife.”
Privately, the leadership of USAIA begins planning for its first manned launched, which is, like the German-Austro-Hungarian efforts, tentatively scheduled for sometime in the early 1970s.
June 18th: In Vienna, the leadership of the German and Austro-Hungarian space programs (moving their planned announcement ahead by a few weeks in reaction to the U.S. announcement regarding their invitation of Russian participation in USAIA), announces that the new European Space Combine (ESC) will be created to facilitate full scientific cooperation between the member states of the European Community. The ESC will be inaugurated in 1969.
July 12th onwards: Agents from the Remembrance Center manage to capture Holloway Bowers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a notorious Freedom Party Guard who was responsible for a number of atrocities committed in Mississippi and Alabama during the Second Great War. Bowers will be tried in New York City, ultimately being sentenced to death, and executed in January of 1968.
July 16th: The second American satellite, the “Alfred Thayer Mahan,” is launched from Cuba.
July 30th: The Brazilian government announces that it will begin a nationwide campaign (as part of its Great Rebuilding) to build a network of nuclear power plants throughout the country (which will not, as the government is quick to stress lead to any kind of project to build a superbomb). The Brazilians will use technology purchased from the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires for these projects.
August 5th onwards: Brazilian zoologist Dr. Lucas Braga publishes what will become one of the most famous environmental works of the twentieth century—Noah’s Tears—which documents the impact of human commercial development upon the natural world, particularly towards the Amazon rainforest. Braga will later found the World Habitat Protection Agency (WHPA), which will lobby governments around the world to protect the habitats of threatened species. Dr. Braga’s initial efforts during the course of the 1960s and early 1970s will focus on protecting the Amazon, although the activities of the WHPA will spread around the globe during the following decades. August 12th onwards: Building begins outside of Gaborone, German Southwest Africa, on the planned city of Sonnestadt [Sun City]. Modeled after the planned Turkish community of Bu Kaynak, Sonnestadt is meant both to showcase Germany’s technological sophistication, as well as to provide a blueprint for future projects both in Africa and Europe.
August 30th: The Russian Duma overwhelmingly approves the introduced proposal to pool the Republic’s space efforts with those of the USAIA.
September onwards: Chile, Ecuador, Ireland, Mexico, and Quebec begin deployment of small numbers of soldiers (averaging 40,000 per nation) to Australia and New Zealand, as part of their security commitments to the C.D.S.
September 9th: The American Environmental Bureau announces that, under its mandate through the Clean America Act, it will begin a cleanup of Cleveland’s Cuyahoga River. The Cuyahoga Cleanup itself is a pilot program for other such endeavors, and will serve as the foundation for other such major environmental restoration projects, most notably those regarding the Hudson River, the Great Lakes, and Boston Harbor in the 1970s and 1980s.
September 20th: The U.S. Congress ratifies The United States-Chile Free Trade Accord (USCFTA), similar to the treaty signed with Ireland 1963. The agreement calls for the end of all trade barriers between the two allies by 1970. October 1st: The member states of the European Community sign the Treaty of Innsbruck, formally marking the establishment of the International Health Organization.
October 19th: President Humphrey announces that he will push Congress to authorize the deployment of another 200,000 U.S. troops to Australia and New Zealand, alongside the now over 70,000 which have been moved to forward bases in U.S. territory by this time. This speech, months in the making, is in reaction to yet another bellicose declaration made earlier in the week by General Ishii promising that “maximum force” will be directed against the C.D.S. member states in the event of another Pacific War.
In reaction to this last speech by General Ishii, Chile, Ecuador, and Ireland sever diplomatic relations with the Japanese Empire.
November 8th: In the U.S. Congressional elections, the Democrats manage to capture a sizable number of seats in both the House and the Senate, although the Socialists maintain overall control. One of the more notable Democratic victories comes in New York, where Representative Joshua Blackford, the son of former President Hosea Blackford and First Lady and Congresswoman Flora Hamburger Blackford, manages to win an open Senate seat.
November 25th onwards: In one of its last major votes before adjourning, Congress approves U.S. membership within the International Health Organization. Subsequently, the U.S. ascension into the I.H.O. will lead to the remaining member states of the C.D.S. joining the new organization by mid-1967.
December 3rd onwards: Ground is broken in Bavaria on the planned town of Grün Fängt [Green Fields], which is planned for completion by 1971. It will be the first urban center in the German Empire powered entirely (as its name suggests) by renewable sources of energy. Similar settlements are planned in a number of other European nations, financed through national versions of the energy independence plans enacted into law by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians.
December 17 onwards: Influenced by reports of the Austro-Hungarian experiments regarding the “Combine” ideas, the U.S. Department of Defense begins planning a similar series of tests, which will be up and running by mid-1967.
January-March, 1967: A second series of clashes occur between the Japanese Kwantung Army and Russian forces in Siberia. They range in size from hand-to-hand combat to a brief firefight involving opposing barrel brigades.
Throughout these fights, General Ishii maintains the most belligerent posture in the Japanese cabinet. Most of the voices urging restraint come from the naval commanders, who have no desire to jeopardize Japan’s already tense relationship with the United States. The army officers in the government tend to support Ishii, who has already purged that military branch of many conservative, restraining voices. There are also border clashes during this time between the Russians and the Japanese and their Mongolian allies.
The United States quietly, to Russian assent, redoubles its efforts to assist in the modernization programs for the Russian military. In a private message to President Humphrey, Viktor Turov assures that in the event of war, America will be allowed to use Russian airspace.
January 11th onwards: The beginning of the Manchukuo Mutiny and the Second Chinese Revolution. To the surprise of the local Japanese and Manchukuo authorities, who had not been expecting major political unrest until the spring (and specifically May Day), a massive revolt against the Japanese and their puppet rulers begins, sparked when off-duty Kwantung Army soldiers get into a fight with Chinese civilians in Harbin.
The explosion of rioting quickly spreads to other cities throughout Manchukuo. Mirroring the beginnings of the Second Russian Revolution, reports soon reach Kwantung Army headquarters in Vladivostok of mutinies erupting throughout the Manchukuo National Army, as soldiers from the puppet regime not only refuse to fire on civilians, but also turn on their loyalist officers.
Peasant revolts also erupt in the countryside, as local farmers, fed up by Manchukuo’s (and Japan’s), heavy tax and labor levies, join in the uprising. Besides the Japanese, the rebels are enraged at the policies of their puppet emperor, Puyi. Suddenly confronted by massive threats to Japan’s rule in the puppet state, General Ishii orders those Kwantung Army units not engaged with the Russians to put down the uprising and to “spare no quarter.”
February 1st-May 15th: The “Smiley Affair.” In a press conference held in front of the Remembrance Center’s New York headquarters, Cassius Madison publically charges that newly elected Virginia congressman Gregory Smiley is in fact John Smalls, a wanted ex-Freedom Party guard responsible for overseeing wartime massacres in North Carolina and Tennessee.
At first, a number of Southern politicians angrily denounce the charges, claiming that Madison is leading a “witch hunt.” The scandal will dominate the domestic news cycle throughout the winter and spring.
Things come to a head in May, when the Justice Department, which has also been investigating Smiley (independently of Madison), prepares to indict the congressman after confirming that he is in fact actually John Smalls. He is arrested in Lynchburg, and brought to New York for trial. It will be open in January of 1968.
The entire Smiley Affair has several long-term political consequences. New York’s Senator Joshua Blackford roundly criticizes the Southern Democrats who publically defended Smiley/Smalls. There is a lot of soul searching in the immediate years that follow, with many Americans wondering how successful the integration of the former Confederate states has actually been thus far.
February 9th: Rhodesian authorities announce the death of Thomas Sithole, the leader of the militant wing of the Rhodesian People’s Union, after a firefight with his entourage near the South African border. In spite of this announcement, the Rhodesian Turbulence continues, with heavy assistance from the Independence Movement. The leadership of the R.P.U. militants is transferred to a committee of Sithole’s officers, while Josiah Muzorewa continues to be held in prison.
March onwards: In spite of inflicting horrendous casualties on the rebels, the Japanese have failed to crush the Second Chinese Revolution. Economic life in both Manchukuo and the rest of Japanese-occupied China has come to a standstill. The most serious enterprise to come to a halt is Manchukuo’s Daqing oil fields, which the Japanese military depends on as a secure source of petroleum.
Revolts have also broken out throughout the network of Laogai (“labor camps”) in Manchukuo and throughout the rest of Japanese occupied-China, as news of the revolt continues to spread. The escaping inmates from the Laogai feed the strife that has continued throughout Japan’s occupation of eastern China and Manchukuo. General strikes from factory and shipping workers have brought the major economic life of cities as far apart as Hong Kong and Shanghai to a standstill.
The crisis is only exacerbated by the death of their puppet ruler Puyi, who dies on March 15. The Kwantung Army steps in to act as a regent for Puyi's eldest son, who takes power in secrecy under armed guard.
In Xian, the National Reconstruction Army, the largest offshoot of the now fragmented Nationalists, continues to build its strength, now fed by both U.S. and Russian arms. American advisors, primarily from the O.S.S., begin assisting the Chinese in retraining and improving their military might.
In Tokyo, some military officials quietly wonder if this new, massive revolt in both China and Manchukuo can provide an opportunity to effectively “declare victory and withdraw,” in the words of one admiral who participates in these secret discussions. However, General Ishii, and the officers aligned with him are fanatics, and will not countenance the very thought of ending Japan’s military offensive in China, in spite of the mounting physical and economic costs.
But desperate to end this rebellion, Ishii decides to revert to Japan’s stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction. Although Japan does not have a superbomb (which Ishii also desperately wants), there are weapons in the I.J.A.’s arsenal that are immensely horrific.
April 1st-September: News reports filtering out of Manchukuo throughout the first week of April begin telling of a massive atrocity afflicted by the Japanese against the rebel-held city of Tsitsihar [OTL Qiqihar]. Although it takes another week for national governments to confirm what has happened, the indicators are clear. The Japanese military has bombarded the city with chemical and biological weapons, developed for decades in labs overseen throughout Manchukuo. Unit 731, once headed by General Ishii’s father (and specializing in biological and chemical warfare), spearheads the ground assault, along with Unit 1644 and Unit 100. Although no exact figure for the number of victims is ever tallied, scholars, led by a joint-U.S.-Chinese team after the Fourth Pacific War, will later calculate that at least 200,000 civilians were killed in the initial attack, with countless more injured.
This tally does not factor in those in the surrounding countryside who succumb in the coming months from Unit 731’s engineered viruses.
This is the first recorded use of deliberate chemical warfare against civilians since the Southern Holocaust, during the Second Great War.
The resulting outcry from around the world takes Tokyo by surprise. In a joint session of Congress called on April 12, President Humphrey announces that the United States will embargo all shipments of raw materials to the Empire of Japan, including scrap metals and minerals vital for Japan’s war machine. Humphrey demands clearly that Japan bring the perpetrators of the atrocity to justice.
Over the next month, those members of the C.D.S. who have not done so already cut diplomatic relations with Japan. In retaliation, General Ishii orders the expulsion of all American diplomatic personal from throughout the Co-Prosperity Sphere. The diplomatic rupture that Japan experiences is wider than that, however.
Throughout the spring of 1967, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia all end diplomatic relations, along with many individual states in the Independence Movement.
Almost all international observers are now certain of an inevitable war eruption sometime in the year between the Americans and Japanese. No one, however, can predict what the actual trigger for a shooting conflict will be.
World markets react negatively to the expanding crisis in Asia and the Pacific, bringing an end to the post-Second Great War worldwide boom of the last two decades. Energy prices, relatively low until now, begin to climb, especially with the U.S. refusal to purchase Japanese-held oil from Borneo or Manchukuo.
President Humphrey meets with the ambassadors from the various members of the C.D.S. throughout the spring, and gets promises from all for contributions of men and material for any confrontation with Japan. Chile, Ireland, Mexico, and Quebec promise to dispatch more units to Australia, to bolster their soldiers already there.
April onwards: The Japanese attack on Tsitsihar sparks panics in the C.D.S. members closest to any prospective front lines of a Fourth Pacific War. In Australia, the government orders the evacuation of all non-essential civilians from the northern halves of Northern Territory, Queensland, and Western Australia. This massive movement of people, coordinated with assistance from U.S. troops stationed in the country, will largely by completed by October 1967.
Separately, the new International Health Organization, although still in its beginning stages, begins dispatching doctors, nurses, and stockpiles of medicine to the nations bordering the Co-Prosperity Sphere. A request by the I.H.O.’s Chief Administrator, Doctor Antal Lajos to send in doctors to deal with the emerging epidemics caused by the Tsitsihar Massacre is coldly denied by General Ishii, however.
April 9th: In a wide-ranging interview with the Frankfurter Zeitung, Matthias Neyere reiterates his goals for an independent Tanganyika. He also, to the surprise of his interviewer, Willy Becker, lashes out at several of his colleagues in the T.P.U., suggesting that the movement is now suffering from internal rivalries in its leadership.
May 1st: Anti-Japanese protests explode into another major uprising against Tokyo in the puppet Empire of Indochina. Much of the violence is centered in the Vietnamese-majority regions of Indochina, with fresh disturbances reported in the Laotian region for the first time. Although Japanese and Imperial Indochinese soldiers manage to keep the cities under control, the countryside erupts into a combination of guerrilla attacks and peasant rebellions.
A separate conflict, simmering for years, also rises to the surface in the southwestern portion of Indochina, where Cambodian and Vietnamese militias begin openly fighting each other, as well as the Japanese.
Singapore, however, is heavily locked down this year, and remains at a standstill. The intensity of the uprisings throughout China and Manchukuo, however, has not dimmed. In fact, news from the massacre only fuels resistance, with the Japanese finding that they can no longer rely on local collaborators as they once did. The military leadership in Tokyo, reeling from the sudden diplomatic isolation of their country, and especially from the U.S. embargo, bring their combined voices to bear against General Ishii’s proposals to authorize more biological and chemical strikes against the rebels, for fear that another Tsitsihar-style massacre will spark an American surprise attack.
Brooding over this unexpected reversal, Ishii tells his cabinet that in the “inevitable final grapple” with the Americans, “no mercy will be shown.” The annual rally held by the T.P.U. in Dar-es-Salaam is subdued this year, owing to fissures in the movement’s leadership, the fears, felt even in east Africa, of a new major war.
May 7th: The Austro-Hungarian writer Gershom Kafka publishes the first book in his Gladiator trilogy—Blooded Sand. The science fiction story is told from the perspective of German conscript Frederick Schmitt, who is kidnapped after finishing his training by a viciously powerful, but decadent alien civilization. He is forced to fight on a gladiatorial planet against warriors and ferocious animals from around the Milky Way. During the course of his adventures he meets, fights alongside, and sometimes against soldiers, mercenaries, and criminals of all stripes taken from the Earth for the same purpose that he was, from all throughout the world’s gruesome twentieth century, and before.
The Gladiator trilogy, later adapted for the big screen by German director Augustín Janda, is a massive bestseller, and propels Kafka to international fame. The sequels Blooded Snow and Blooded Swamp will be published in 1970 and 1973, respectively.
June onwards: The beginning of the so-called “Gas Mask Summer,” as the United States government begins the mass distribution of gas masks across the West Coast and the Sandwich Isles (Australia and New Zealand have been issuing masks since the spring of 1967). Soon, from Baja California to Alaska Territory, the bug-like masks start to seem ubiquitous, which in turn only fuels the massive “war flight” into the interior.
To handle the growing need to house evacuees, the Army Corps of Engineers, and various state national guards, begin construction of massive temporary housing encampments from Saskatchewan to New Mexico. Most of the projects will be complete by the time war ultimately does erupt in the fall.
The term “Gas Mask Summer” will later become the title of a 1972 poem written by Simon Wells, a young evacuee from Los Angeles to Wyoming in the summer of 1967. His work will later be seen as one of the sparks of the “Nihilist” cultural movement that emerges in the 1970s after the Fourth Pacific War, in Australia, Europe, and the United States.
June 1st onwards: President Humphrey, and Germany’s Chancellor Friedrich Bayer, issue the San Francisco Declaration, issued in that city between the two leaders, as Bayer stops by on his way to inspect Germany’s military installations in the South Pacific. The Declaration states that an attack Germany's possessions in the Pacific will invite retaliation from both powers.
Intended to intimidate the Japanese into agreeing to halt their brutal crackdowns in Manchukuo and China, and agreeing to turn over the war criminals responsible for the Tsitsihar Massacre, the Declaration only further enrages General Ishii and his allies in the Japanese government. Ishii responds in a massive public tirade on June 2, in which promises explicitly to drive both Germany and the United States from the Pacific, “by any means necessary!”
Ishii’s speech terrifies the opposition within the Japanese government and military. Several naval officers, led by Admiral Okada Haruka, privately consider removing Ishii in a coup d’état, for the sake of avoiding a ruinous conflict with the C.D.S., Germans, and Russians.
In Hong Kong, the Japanese commanders announce that they have crushed the local rebellion. However, the port remains at a standstill for the next six weeks, as few local laborers return to work.
July-September: The Japanese continue to struggle against the massive Chinese revolts in Manchukuo, and the rest of their occupied portions of China. Economic activity remains at a standstill throughout the region, disrupting vital Japanese shipments of food, fuel, and raw materials. By the fall of 1967, the Daqing oil fields still remain out of commission, with rebels preventing crews from the Home Islands from rebuilding the multitude of burned out facilities.
July 1st onwards: Both the USAIA and the European Space Combine begin to increase their rates of satellite launches, from around two to three per year to ten to twelve. July 4th: The Fourth of July celebrations throughout the United States are subdued this year, as war clouds continue to loom over the Asia and the Pacific. President Humphrey spends most of the holiday meeting with officials from the Defense Department, the O.S.S., and ambassadors from the C.D.S.
July 20th: Martial Law is imposed on the Big Island of the Sandwich Islands.
September 1-September 10, 1967: Exasperated by the Japanese refusal to negotiate and end to the fighting in Manchukuo and China, the Brazilians and Ottomans finally cut diplomatic ties with Tokyo.
More serious from General Ishii’s perspective is what happens later that month, when both Venezuela and the Ottoman Empire (the largest producers of oil in the Independence Movement), announce a “cutback” in fuel shipments to the Co-Prosperity Sphere, citing the unstable geopolitical situation.
In Nagoya, General Ishii holds two cabinet meetings, on September 7 and September 10. During the course of these secret meetings, Ishii, stressing that their nation now has “nothing left to lose,” and facing “economic and political warfare orchestrated by America and her lackeys,” pushes for a massive preemptive military assault against C.D.S. targets across the Pacific, in order to force the United States to concede total mastery of the Pacific and East Asia to the Japanese Empire.
The debate is acrimonious, as the Imperial Japanese Navy’s leaders, led by Admiral Okada, question the need for a massive war with the Americans. Once again, Ishii stresses that the United States is politically fragmented, economically fragile, and without the tolerance for taking high casualties.
Admiral Okada counters that the United States is no longer distracted in North America, whatever Ishii thinks; he also acidly reminds Ishii that the United States has one of the world’s largest superbomb and sunbomb arsenals, and that in that case it would only result in the destruction of Japan’s military and economic assets. Okada instead pushes for a “tactical reevaluation” of continuing the “China Incident,” suggesting that the empire would be better served in finding a non-violent way to end the diplomatic crises it faces from the other powers. Thanks to Okada’s stubborn debate, Ishii fails to get a unanimous motion passed in the cabinet supporting war.
September 20th onwards: Admiral Okada is severely wounded in an assassination attempt in Tokyo, which is carried out by a squad of ultra-nationalist officer cadets. Subsequently, Okada tenders his resignation to Ishii, who coldly accepts. Although many assume after the war that Ishii was the one who ordered the assassination attempt on Okada, evidence, collected by the Brazilian historian Thiago Amaral for his 1996 book The Age of Hatred suggests that in fact, it was an action taken by the shadowy Freedom Party-eque group Yuzonsha , with private encouragement from Ishii’s allies within the army’s high command, though without knowledge from Ishii himself.
However, General Ishii is more than happy to take advantage of the new situation. As he coldly tells the visibly cowed naval officers at the cabinet meeting of September 25, “To keep you is no benefit. To destroy you is no loss.”
It’s at this meeting, held in Tokyo, that the decision is taken to go to war with the C.D.S.
September 25th-October onwards: The O.S.S. begins to pick up increasing volumes of chatter from the (deciphered) codes of the Japanese military command. O.S.S. Director George Thompson reports to the President and the Secretary of Defense that signs are pointing to a preemptive military assault, to be undertaken sometime in the late fall of 1967. Thompson advises Humphrey that Australia, the Sandwich Isles, and the entire U.S. west coast are the most likely targets.
On September 30th, Humphrey, using a system of military alertness implemented by the Dewey Administration, moves the U.S. military to Alert Level 2, full-scale mobilization short of actually being at war.
The atmosphere at the White House, the Defense Department, and the O.S.S. is tense, augmented by a grim determination not to suffer another Operation Blackbeard. During this period of time, all foreign businessmen in the Co-Prosperity Sphere who have not yet evacuated close down their offices.
The Japanese military commanders, in the meantime, recognize early on that Ishii’s initial plan, to launch a surprise attack against the Sandwich Isles or the West Coast similar to the surprise opening of the Hispano-Japanese War would likely prove disastrous. The U.S. Navy, with its massive carrier battle groups operating from the Sandwich Isles, Washington, and California, will likely spot the Japanese carrier groups before they can move into position.
Ishii reluctantly agrees with this assessment. Instead, he decides to shift the focus of the planned attack on a “soft” target. To this end, Ishii orders the focus of the attack to shift to Australia.
On October 1st, Director Thompson reports to Humphrey that most of the chatter picked up from the Japanese indicates a renewed interest in the “furthest reaches of the Southern Resource Area.” He suggests that this is a sign that an assault is most likely to occur against Australia. The Secretary of Defense reinforces this line of thought; he informs the president that no unusual activity has been detected from Japan’s carrier battle groups strung along the huge nautical “neutral zone” that separates the two powers.
On October 3rd, Australia and New Zealand both announce a general mobilization. In retaliation (and after covert pressure from Tokyo), the governments of Burma, the Empire of Indochina, the Indonesian Confederation [Java and Sumatra], and Thailand all announce general mobilizations.
On October 15th, an O.S.S. contact on Japanese-ruled West Papua reports an unusual burst of activity at a number of military bases. Already heavily militarized because of the presence of the German half of New Guinea (and nearby Australia), the island has become a hub of activity in the last two months.
Verified by similar German reports, the O.S.S. now suggests to Humphrey that the Japanese are installing long-range offensive weapons on West Papua and throughout the rest of the East Indies. Director Thompson suggests that the Japanese are refitting their ballistic missiles with biological or chemical warheads.
U.S. forces stationed in Australia are ordered to be on constant alert, and to be ready to make use of their gasmasks. The President orders that in the event of a Japanese launch against Australia, the military should be prepared for immediate retaliation.
Humphrey, remembering the horrors of the superbombings at the end of the Second Great War, also makes it clear that the United States will not deliberately target civilian areas with superbombs or sunbombs.
The rest of October passes, and the tension across the C.D.S.’s forward bases in the Pacific only increases. During this time, Germany completes the evacuation of all non-essential civilians from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
November 1st-November 29th: The Japanese complete their preparations for their planned assault, scheduled for November 30. The plan is code-named Operation Dissolution.
This month also sees preparations continue on the American side. Armed with intelligence from the O.S.S., President Humphrey keeps U.S. forces on Alert 2. The trickle of “evacuees” continues to exit the West Coast for the American interior.
In Berlin, the German government discusses its contingency plans for any armed confrontation with the Japanese. It is decided that, for the sake of their interests in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, war will only be declared in the event of a preemptive Japanese attack.
In Moscow, Viktor Turov gets assurances from the other parties in the Duma that they will fully support for any conflict that is waged against the Japanese. On November 10, Turov announces Russian mobilization.
The Brazilian and Ottoman leaders, meeting in Asuncion on November 12, decide on a policy of neutrality in the event of another Pacific War. Neither government has any love for General Ishii, but are mostly concerned how a major armed confrontation between the C.D.S. and the Co-Prosperity Sphere will affect the world’s balance of power.
General Ishii is determined that that balance should shift in Japan’s favor. In Ishii’s mind, the United States is the one power that stands between Japan and the path towards global domination.
President Humphrey is determined to prevent General Ishii and Japan from dominating the entirety of the Pacific. Like other American military and political leaders of his generation, Humphrey remembers the horrors unleashed by Featherston’s Confederacy, and is determined to stop, in his mind, a similar madman from wrecking havoc on the world stage.
The Fourth Pacific War
November 30th-December 1st: The Fourth Pacific War begins with the predawn launch on November 30 of Japanese missiles from bases scattered throughout the East Indies against C.D.S. bases in Australia. True the fears of the O.S.S., they are equipped with chemical warheads.
As soon as the launches are detected, by both y-ranging gear and (for the first time in military history) satellite, Australian and U.S. commanders order their fighters and bombers scrambled for an immediate counter-attack. U.S. missiles are launched, both from Australia and from submarines offshore, against the detected missile bases. Across the length and breadth of the neutral zone, Japanese and U.S. carrier planes begin clashing over the Pacific.
The Japanese missiles, mostly (barring the inevitable ones which short out or prove to be duds), impact home. Thanks to months of preparation, U.S. and other C.D.S. troops almost all have their masks on upon impact. Thanks to the previous summer’s evacuation, there are no civilian casualties in the impact zones. The gas, designed in Manchukuo by Unit 731’s scientists to be as deadly as possible, is a variant of nerve gas, and still proves deadly to thousands of C.D.S. troops. In retaliation for this usage of weapons of mass destruction, President Humphrey authorizes Operation Infinity: by the end of December 1, hit with ballistic missiles across the Co-Prosperity Sphere, twenty of Japan’s largest military installations have been destroyed by superbombs. These are all bases far away from civilian areas. To General Ishii’s consternation, Admiral Okada’s predictions during the September cabinet debates have proven all too accurate. Suddenly, Japan’s offensive capabilities, carefully built up over the past two months for planned operations against the Aleutians, Australia, Hawaii, and New Zealand, have been almost completely destroyed.
Although Ishii will not admit it, Japan’s other military planners recognize that this will now be a war of attrition.
The President announces grimly to the nation, over radio and television that a state of war now exists between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan. Thus begins the Fourth, (and final) Pacific War between the two powers. December onwards: The United States effectively ends Japan’s naval offensive capabilities during the course of this month. Although formidable and battle-trained, Japan loses over half of its carrier battle groups, to the Americans’ edge in both military intelligence and technology.
U.S. submarine squadrons also begin a sustained assault against Japan’s naval forces, and against its merchant marine. Due to overconfidence, the Japanese military regimes had not prepared for a submarine war, and even early in the war, the Home Islands begin to feel the bite of the loss in food and fuel shipments. U.S. bombers, taking off from bases in Alaska, begin raiding targets throughout Manchukuo and even the Home Islands, again focusing their attacks on industrial and military targets.
December 1967 sees two significant economic losses for the Japanese Empire: the Daqing oilfields in Manchukuo (already off line for the most part due to the Second Chinese Revolution), and the huge refinery complex of Balikpapan, in Borneo. A string of missile attacks, and, in the case of Daqing, by massive attacks from American bombers, devastates both areas.
On December 10th, Japan declares war on the Russian Republic, after a new round of clashes begin between Generals Golovin and Ikeda. In the beginnings of winter, there is not a lot of movement along the Siberian Front. However, even as Russian soldiers are rushed eastwards, President Turov authorizes the construction of three air force bases in the Russian Far East for usage by the Americans.
There is also fighting in Mongolia between the Russians and Japanese, although neither side has a lot of soldiers to spare for this theater of the conflict. The steady stream of evacuees from the West Coast becomes a flood; by mid-1968, some five million people have moved into the U.S. interior. Fortunately, there is just enough emergency housing completed by that time for the massive influx.
1967 ends with what proves to be the conclusion of what will later be called the "First Phase" of the Fourth Pacific War. With Japan's abilities to wage offensives against Australia, New Zealand, and the United States curtailed, 1968 will see the C.D.S. go on the offensive, as well as the beginnings of the disintegration of the Japanese Empire and the Co-Prosperity Sphere.
January-March, 1968 onwards: Throughout the winter of 1968, Japan’s strategic situation increasingly worsens. The U.S. naval campaign, spearheaded by the newest generation of atomic powered submarines, utterly decimates both the Imperial Japanese Navy and merchant marine. Critical shipments of food and raw materials from the rest of the Co-Prosperity Sphere to the Home Islands decreases accordingly, sparking a panic amidst the Japanese bureaucracy of the potential for famine. The growing shortages cause the civilian economy in the Home Islands to implode during this time. Ishii’s government, unprepared for a drawn-out total war, attempts a crash course program of rationing and resource conservation, belated efforts which one later historian of the conflict will later label as “catastrophic chaos.” Millions of women and children, fearful of a bombing campaign (and in particular of superbomb attacks) from the cities also begin to flee into the countryside, adding severe burdens to the rural economy and further exposing the central government’s shortsightedness and administrative incompetence.
General Ishii notes the growing air of pessimism amidst the military hierarchy and civilian politicians, and forbids any mention of even the possibility of mass starvation. However, in private, many military leaders, even some formerly loyal to Ishii’s faction, fume. The Empire’s offensive capabilities have been wrecked, and many begin to fear that it will be only a manner of time before C.D.S. forces begin a massive drive into the heart of Japanese Pacific territory.
In fact, the last thing that U.S. military planners want is a long, drawn out “Island Hopping” campaign across much of the Japanese Pacific. The C.D.S. strategic plan is to weaken the Japanese Empire through the destruction of its economic and material assets, with the goal in mind to erode as much of the Co-Prosperity Sphere as possible.
Throughout the winter of 1968, U.S. and Australian bombers attack military targets throughout the Japanese-ruled East Indies, Indochina, and Malaysia. U.S., Australian and New Zealander submarines attack Burmese, Indonesian, Imperial Indochinese, Japanese, and Thai shipping throughout the vast region. By March of 1968, the maritime economy of Southeast Asia has been brought to a standstill.
The Japanese strategic plan, as stated in increasingly blood-curdling rhetoric from General Ishii, is the utterly smash destroy the C.D.S. presence in the Pacific as a prelude towards world conquest.
Among the realists within Japan’s military apparatus, the only consistent strategy apparently available to the Empire is to inflict a single, devastating military defeat on the Americans, thus bringing Washington to the negotiating table, and a restoration of the prewar status quo. By March of 1968, with almost all of Japan’s carrier groups decimated by U.S. submarines, even this plan becomes utterly forlorn. From the outbreak of war, the Japanese military has lost almost all restraint in attempting to suppress the ongoing Second Chinese Revolution, which has now made much of the countryside of Manchukuo and northern China inhospitable for Japanese forces. Chemical weapons are used against whole rebellious villages and towns (though not biological weapons, as the outbreaks from the Tsitsihar Massacre have spread to Japan’s civilian population throughout the puppet state), killing many tens of thousands of people at a time. In order to blunt these horrific acts, the O.S.S. races to discover the primary locations of Japan’s research centers for weapons of mass destruction.
In Siberia, Russian and Japanese armored regiments continue to clash across the vast, frozen territory. The opposing commanders, General Golovin and General Ikeda, are both very imaginative and skilled military leaders. However, General Golovin has the advantage of guaranteed supplies, from both the Russian government and the C.D.S., while General Ikeda’s supply situation becomes increasingly precarious, especially after Operation Hard Hat I obliterates bulk of his intended stocks in early January. Yukio, over the hard winter of 1968, is forced to retreat towards Vladivostok.
In Indochina, the rebellion against the Imperial government in Saigon only intensifies, as control over the countryside has been all but lost. The O.S.S. begins gunrunning to the Vietnamese militias (via submarine).
In southwestern Indochina, however, Japanese and Imperial forces begin to regain the upper hand, owing to the civil war between the Cambodians and Vietnamese.
In China, the National Reconstruction Army continues its offensives against the Japanese, assisted by the slow but gruesome collapse of Japanese military rule in their portions of China.
Agents from the O.S.S., under directives from Washington, also begin to assist the Reconstruction Army in bringing the other nationalist and warlord armies in unoccupied China under the control of General Zhuang Lin’s authority. Morgan Reynolds, the O.S.S. station chief in Xian (and the future postwar U.S. ambassador to China), spearheads many of these missions.
January 1st, 1968: In a televised New Year’s Day address to the nation, President Humphrey confirms, in light of the ongoing Fourth Pacific War, that he will seek a third term for the presidency. His address is noticeably somber, and most political observers see in Humphrey’s speech the subtext of attempting to assure the American public that he will not use the conflict with Japan to extend his power indefinitely. He states that he will not seek a fourth term to office in 1972.
January 3rd -January 4th onwards: On the evening of January 3, President Humphrey authorizes the first Operation Hard Hat.
Operation Hard Hat I sees the detonation of a single superbomb atop the suspected headquarters of Unit 731, in the Pingfang District, on the outskirts of Harbin, Manchukuo. The attack kills many of Japan’s best military scientists, and also destroys a significant portion of Japan’s biological and chemical weapons stocks, although the infrastructure of Harbin is also severely damaged in the process. The bombing also destroys a huge arms depot, consisting of supplies meant for the Kwantung Army in Siberia. The lack of motor fuel and food rations will force General Ikeda to fall back in the face of the increasingly well-supplied Russian forces. News of Operation Hard Hat is almost enough for a group of naval officers, former followers of Admiral Okada, to attempt an assassination attempt against General Ishii. Only Okada’s direct orders prevent them from acting immediately; the former naval commander, driven into a deep depression over the outbreak of war and the increasing volume of defeats (and effectively confined to house arrest), is afraid of bringing down Ishii’s wrath down on Japan’s naval leadership.
January 5th: A second American superbomb is detonated over a laboratory complex near the city of Hsinking [OTL Changchun] in Operation Hard Hat II, destroying one of the largest of Unit 731’s testing and manufacturing sites.
January 6th onwards: In order to further assist the Russians, President Humphrey authorizes the deployment of the Far Eastern Expeditionary Force (F.E.E.F), a force of 50,000 men centered on the best U.S. cold weather troops (and barrels). The F.E.E.F, supplemented by allied units from both Ireland and Quebec, will be shipped out on January 15, 1968 from Boston and New York City.
January 15th onwards: The first of three new air bases in completed in Russian-controlled Siberia, not far from Lake Baikal, which will service the U.S. Air Force. As the weather improves, U.S. air power will be increasingly be brought to bear against Japanese targets in both Manchukuo and the Home Islands themselves. February 2nd onwards: The F.E.E.F, along with its allied units, arrives in Murmansk. They are moved, over the next two weeks, across Russia into Siberia, where they are headquarted in the city of Irkutsk. The F.E.E.F. is commanded by General Julius MacArthur, who, to the surprise of the journalists attached to this army, lacks the showmanship of his father, retired General Daniel MacArthur.
February 14th onwards: The U.S. Air Force stages its first mass raid against Tokyo, targeting the industrial centers of Yokohama. This is a prelude to greater raids in the spring and summer of 1968, and only hastens the emptying of many Japanese cities of their civilian populations.
In Tucson, New Mexico, a spontaneous Valentine’s Day musical concert held for the local West Coast evacuees attracts many thousands of local residents as well. This proves to be the genesis of the “Battlefield Jamboree”, an annual musical event that gains rapidly in national popularity during the following decade.
March onwards: Japanese intelligence, based in Manchukuo and Mongolia, begin to pick up reports of a major C.D.S/Russian offensive being planned, sometime for the summer of 1968. Details are vague, but the name “Operation Windtalker” is picked up. Reports dispatched to Tokyo suggest that Windtalker is meant to strike directly into Manchukuo, in order to support General Golovin’s forces further to the east. Livid at the thought of U.S. forces setting foot in one of Japan’s most important overseas possessions, General Ishii orders defensive positions in the puppet state boosted accordingly.
With few Japanese troops available due to the ongoing Second Chinese Revolution, Japanese troops are brought in from further afield, from the puppet states of Mongolia and Mengjiang. Concerns that this will leave these two puppet states vulnerable to a land invasion are brushed aside by Ishii, who forbids any discussion of such a possibility.
March-June onwards: Over the next three months, Japanese intelligence gains more information about Operation Windtalker. News emerges of “vast” military encampments being constructed throughout the Russian Far East, all concentrated towards the front lines. Heavy U.S. and Russian bombing raids launched against Vladivostok, as well as the bridges spanning the Amur River, confirm Ishii’s suspicions that the Americans plan to attack directly into Manchukuo.
As the weather improves in the Russian Far East, the U.S. Air Force begins to increase its bombing runs against targets in Korea, Manchukuo, and the Home Islands. Escorted by the newest generation of long-range jet fighters, the American B-64s cause untold devastation to Japan’s industrial plant.
The growing food shortages caused by the C.D.S. blockade has now sparked continuous food riots not only in the Home Islands, but also in previously quiet regions such as Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan, which are put down with great brutality. The previously dormant nationalist movements in both Korea and the Philippines begin to sense opportunities for possible revolts. These sentiments are supported in spirit by exile groups from the United States and practically by O.S.S. gunrunners over the coming year.
The economy of the entire Co-Prosperity Sphere, once held aloft by the Japanese as an example of “unheard of” economic dynamism and growth, utterly collapses during the spring of 1968. Inflation exponentially increases throughout the Co-Prosperity Sphere, wiping out the savings of the middle classes, and in some regions forcing the creation of barter economies. Anger is stoked, especially in Indochina and Indonesia, by the Japanese attempts to co-opt local sources of food and fuel for an increasingly doomed war effort.
Throughout this time, General Ishii repeatedly rejects offers by both the Brazilians and Ottomans to act as mediators for a negotiated end to the fighting. March 12th: Raymond Longstreet Pinkard dies in Rhodesia, when his Rhodesian National Guard detachment is ambushed near the city of Livingstone [In OTL also known as Maramba, Zambia] by the militant wing of the Rhodesian People’s Union. A fugitive from the United States (for his connections to a series of anti-U.S. bombings in Mississippi and Alabama, as well as his attempts to re-start the Freedom Party), Pinkard, the son of the notorious late war criminal Jefferson Davis Pinkard, has been serving as a mercenary with the R.N.G., a paramilitary unit that attacks villages suspected of being in sympathy with the R.P.U. There is a heavy presence of Confederate expatriates within the R.N.G.
Killed almost instantly during the attack, it will not emerge for another forty years that in fact Pinkard was killed by Jimmy Beverage, alias Edward Smyth, a former affiliate of the Remembrance Center, and currently employed by the O.S.S. March 18th onwards: Italian journalist Alessandro Colombo publishes the novel Eternal City. The plot centers around an anonymous narrator who goes on a vision quest after taking hallucinogenic drugs in the Forum. During the vision, which takes the narrator to many strange, bizarre realities (and meetings with dozens of real life and fictional people), the narrator comes to realize that life needs to lived according to his own selfish desires, freed from any kind of “constraining” morality. The novel, which is eviscerated by reviewers across Europe and the United States, will later be seen as the spark of the European branch of the Nihilist cultural phenomenon. In spite of its hostile reception, the book becomes a massive bestseller. Austro-Hungarian director Amadej Jankovic will adopt the book into a nightmarish surrealistic film in 1976.
April onwards: Conditions in the Japanese Home Islands continue to deteriorate. The effective C.D.S. blockade, combined with the lack of government preparedness for a long war, has now led to the evaporation of what little remains of the prewar civilian economy.
Military authorities are alarmed by reports of food riots erupting throughout the countryside. General Ishii begins to dispatch detachments of soldiers, backed by the civilian police, to track down “hoarders” and to seize food supplies for the war effort.
In the major industrial centers, now regularly visited by U.S. B-64s, Japan’s labor movement, already militarized due to decades of suppression from the central government, begins to agitate, as Japan’s workers begin to feel as though they have nothing to lose. Once thought unthinkable, the police now report increasing numbers of “wild” stoppages by growing numbers of malnourished workers.
Many Japanese workers are influenced by the writings of the Rodo Undo (“Labor Movement”), a secretive worker’s organization whose structure is, ironically, inspired by the military’s plethora of ultra-nationalistic secret societies. The Rodo Undo calls for the overthrow of Japan’s ruling “parasitic,” military government, and for its replacement with a syndicalist regime—that is, in the Japanese context, government by the working class, through their unions. The Rodo Undo, unlike the pre-Second Russian Revolution leaders, lack a single charismatic leader, but make up for it in a surprising lack of ideological splintering common in Japan’s far left-wing movements.
General Ishii quickly orders that anyone caught in these actions is to be dealt with as a “traitor to the Emperor and Japanese spirit.” However, many in Japan’s government, particularly in the police and intelligence services, now fear for the worst. A major military defeat could spark an industrial stoppage, if not a revolution.
March-June onwards: On every front in the Fourth Pacific War, Japanese military bases face heavy bombardment from C.D.S and allied air forces. General Ishii is paranoid at the possibility of an American attack against Japan’s most resource-rich territories in the East Indies, particularly Borneo. Japanese military forces stationed in the Pacific islands and the wider “Southern Resource Area” are now largely cut off from the Home Islands, with the Imperial Japanese Navy (or what’s left of it), confined to port or sunk by submarine.
In Jakarta, the leaders of the puppet Indonesian Confederation begin to consider the possibility of removing themselves from the war. Although there are a large number of Japanese forces on both Java and Sumatra, there is also the Indonesian National Guard, now fully mobilized for the war effort, but without the means to actually be transported to any front. Quietly, the Confederation’s leaders begin to plot with the National Guard for a “day of reckoning” with the Japanese authorities. Contact is also made with the main nationalist group in the Confederation—the Liberation Front, funded by the Independence Movement, and led by the violently anti-Japanese nationalist Umar Malik.
Throughout the Co-Prosperity Sphere, the Fourth Pacific War only magnifies existing conflicts. In Burma, the O.S.S. begins to supply the warlord armies in the north of the country fighting against the pro-Japanese government in Rangoon.
In Australia, C.D.S. forces, under a unified U.S.-Australian command, begin to plan the next plan of action. The Australians, led by General Christopher Jade, want to end the Japanese threat to their country as soon as possible, and push hard for an assault against Japanese West Papua.
The Americans, under General Theodore Toricelli, are more cautious, and suggest a landing on Japanese Timor instead. Reinforced by U.S. naval units in the spring, it is decided, both in Washington and Canberra, to approve of both plans. West Papua will be the first target, scheduled for July, while Japanese Timor will be attacked in August. The plans are approved under the name Operation Elephant.
April 1st onwards: German East Africa gains a civilian Advisory Council. Like the Advisory Council for the Congo, East Africa’s Advisory Council will later serve as the basis for the elected government of an independent state.
This new development, ironically, leads to a formal split within the Tanganyika People’s Union, with Matthias Neyere’s faction denouncing the Advisory Council for not going far enough, and the more moderate faction, reforming itself as the Tanganyika People’s Party, seeing the Council as a positive development for the building of a new nation state. The People’s Party will come to dominate the Advisory Council in its first elections, and will use it as a forum to secure more support from Berlin for continued improvements in East Africa’s infrastructure and social structure.
Many German businessmen and politicians, seeing the positive outcomes of the Portuguese attempts to forge a Federation from their colonial empire, begin to ponder a similar scheme for the German Empire. Chancellor Bayer is among them; the Social Democratic Party leader begins to circulate ideas for drawing up a new relationship with Germany’s colonial territories—preferably a new arrangement that will end the burdens of administration while ensuring a prosperous business relationship. Such plans will come to fruition gradually over the course of the next two decades, but implemented by a different generation of politicians.
May 1st onwards: During a massive May Day walk out at Mitsubishi’s largest (surviving) factory in Yokohama, the police clash in a confrontation with the workers. Historians later view the massive clash as one of the critical events that eventually leads to the fall of Japan’s imperial government—in the postwar Japanese Worker’s Republic, the clash is known as the “Battle for Mitsubishi.”
June 15th onwards: Operation Grizzly, the largest allied land campaign during the Fourth Pacific War, begins with a massive Russo-C.D.S armored assault across the border between Russia and Mongolia.
True to the (muted) worries of the Japanese high command, Operation Windtalker was all a ruse. Operation Grizzly is aimed at driving the Japanese out of Mongolia, and from there out of north China and Manchukuo. Within five days, easily destroying the under-equipped Mongolian and Japanese units in their paths, the allied forces successfully capture the Mongolian capital of Urga [OTL Ulan Bator], disposing the puppet Bogd Khan from power in the process.
The fall of Urga sparks a catastrophic chain reaction for the Japanese across the region. Over the next two weeks, many Mongolian soldiers desert their former overlords, and pledge their allegiance to the new government in Urga, led by the anti-Japanese exile and nationalist Dulma Sükhbaatar.
Enraged by the successful allied deception, General Ishii abruptly orders whatever forces can be spared from Manchukuo to be rushed into Mongolia to halt the offensive. This results in the destruction of an entire armored brigade in the Battle of the Herlen River on June 20; Japanese barrels prove to be match for the newest generation of American and Russian armored fighters. Moving quickly, allied forces cross into Manchukuo at the village of Nomonhan on June 22.
A separate Russian contingent overwhelms the puppet state of Mengjiang during this time. The fall of Mongolia and the invasion of Manchukuo now turns much of the military establishment against General Ishii. Despite efforts by military censors, news of the magnitude of the disaster soon reaches the public (speculated decades later by historian Thiago Amaral through the channel of a disgruntled naval officer).
The allied advance only slows due to the need to construct secure supply lines to the front lines, now centered in Urga. By the beginning of July, the Russo-C.D.S. forces are once again on the move; however, once in Manchukuo, the allied forces exert increasing caution, less from the presence of the Kwantung Army and more from the outbreaks of disease stemming from the previous year’s Japanese usage of biological weapons.
July 1st onwards: The first phase of Operation Elephant begins with a massive U.S. and Australian naval bombardment of Japanese fortified positions on the south end of Japanese West Papua. The first wave of 50,000 C.D.S. soldiers land near the town of Merauke; most soldiers in this first wave are Americans and Australians, and although they meet with fierce resistance from the defenders, the firepower brought to bear from carrier based fighter-bombers prove to the too much. A smaller contingent, comprised of C.D.S. soldiers, also seizes control of Yos Sudarso Island over the following two days.
Over the next three months, C.D.S. forces, reinforced by fresh waves of soldiers from Australia and New Zealand, fight a brutal, slogging campaign to drive the Japanese off of West Papua. They are assisted by a local insurgency that erupts behind the Japanese front lines—the insurgency proves to be critical in allowing the C.D.S. to secure Papua’s network of roads and military highways. Generals Christopher Jade and Theodore Toricelli command the invasion; General Jade will later be awarded an Oceanic Knighthood by the Australian government after the conclusion of the war in 1970.
Coinciding with the fall of Mongolia and the invasion of Manchukuo, the successful landings on West Papua deal a nearly fatal blow to Ishii’s regime; with the exception of the general’s staunch loyalists, many officers and civilian bureaucrats begin to plan a coup, hoping to install Admiral Okada in power once Ishii has been removed (although Okada himself is not involved in the planning at all).
Ishii realizes the danger that his government is in, but assumes erroneously the reported plot is being planned and led by Okada. With the assistance of his allies from the intelligence services, and a number of fanatical ultra-nationalists, Ishii decides to “preempt” Okada’s perceived plan, while “purifying” the so-called “corrupt traitors” that Ishii increasingly sees everywhere in the government.
July 6th -July 12th onwards: Throughout the Home Islands and the rest of the Japanese Empire, General Ishii’s allies in the intelligence services, army, and the ultra-nationalist secret societies carry out their master’s “preemption”: a massive purge of naval and army officers suspected of involvement in the planned coup. The purge, later known popularly as the “Days of the Butterfly Swords,” decimates Japan’s leadership, reaching far beyond the scope of the actual planners of the coup to encompass the entirety of Japan’s military leadership and civilian bureaucracy. The victims include Admiral Okada, who is murdered by members of the Yuzhonza secret society. Ishii’s agents also extend the purge throughout the Co-Prosperity Sphere, to varying degrees of success.
Carried out in the name of the Emperor, these gruesome acts have several detrimental long-term consequences: Japan’s government and military leadership is thrown into chaos, as central planning breaks down and General Ishii moves his toadies into key positions of administration and command.
Further afield, the Days of the Butterfly Swords sparks the beginning of the Japanese Civil War, as several factions emerge to counter General Ishii. The largest faction is centered around Admiral Watanabe Arata, the officer in charge of the defense of the Japanese Philippines (and after July 12, the highest ranking surviving Japanese naval officer in the Empire). Enraged at Ishii’s murderous acts, Admiral Watanabe, after his bodyguards dispatch assassins from army intelligence, declares his secession from Ishii’s “mad, bloody, regime, in the name of the Emperor, and all that is still decent and holy in the Japanese nation.”
Watanabe’s move, supported by naval crews confined to Pilipino harbors since the escalation of the C.D.S. naval campaign, is opposed by General Yamazaki Isoroku, who while not an Ishii loyalist, also genuinely believes that Arata was planning a coup against the government in Tokyo. What follows is a miniature civil war that lasts throughout the rest of the Fourth Pacific War, as Arata’s sailors and marines fight Yamazaki’s soldiers for control over the Philippines. Caught in the crossfire are Pilipino and Japanese civilians, who do their best to stay out of the sudden outbreak of violence.
In Siberia, General Ikeda, having by now been driven to the gates of Khabarovsk, suffers a breakdown in which he declares to his aids that the war is lost, upon realizing the magnitude of Ishii’s purge. He leaves written instructions to the Kwantung Army’s officers to surrender to the Russians, and then commits seppuku.
Although several officers, all Ishii loyalists, press to continue the fight, they are (violently) overruled by majority of Ikeda’s officer corps. General Golovin accepts the formal surrender of the Kwantung Army’s frontline divisions in Vladivostok on July 20, 1968, an event that leads to wild celebrations across the Russian Republic. Golovin, however, has no time to rest on his laurels, and, after securing the Japanese prisoners of war, begins a new offensive across the Amur River, backed overhead by Russian and C.D.S. fighter-bombers.
The surrender of General Ikeda’s forces has a shattering effect on the rest of the Kwantung Army. Already severely low on morale due to the endless fight against the revolting Chinese civilians, the Kwantung Army, stretched thin across the vastness of Manchukuo by the Second Chinese Revolution, is now confronted by two huge enemy forces advancing from the west and from the north.
By the end of August, the two allied armies have driven the Japanese entirely out of Manchukuo, over the Yalu River into Korea and further south into China (and, in the process, find a surprisingly high number of Japanese soldiers eager to surrender, to escape retaliation from the vengeance-minded Chinese—captured soldiers from Unit 731 on the other hand often face immediate execution by allied troops). The rebels welcome the allies with unabashed jubilation; the Russian and C.D.S. commanders discover that Manchuria has been turned into a vast charnel house. Postwar historians of the Fourth Pacific War never agree on a precise figure for the civilian casualties in Japanese-occupied China during the conflict, but estimate that the figure is in the millions.
Doctors from the International Health Organization are finally allowed into the region, where they desperately begin efforts, helped by allied military authorities, to contain and eliminate the plagues still raging from the previous year’s Tsitsihar Massacre.
The collapse of the Japanese forces in Manchuria leads to the rapid advance of the National Reconstruction Army in the south.
On August 16, Beijing falls to the Chinese, supported by U.S. warplanes. Amidst the ruins of the Forbidden City, General Zhuang Lin, quickly recognized by the Russians, Americans, and the rest of the C.D.S as China’s new interim president, declares the establishment of the Chinese Republic. Lin is purse in his remarks, but does promise a renaissance for China after “centuries of horror and darkness.”
Morgan Reynolds, who has been attached to the Reconstruction Army during its rapid advance east, witnesses the address, and later writes about it in his first book, the best-selling [The End of the Beginning, published in 1971. The remaining Japanese forces in China, leaderless, low on morale, and now unsure as to who is actually in charge in Tokyo, begin a long retreat towards the Chinese coast, followed closely by Japanese civilian administrators and Chinese collaborators.
Further south, what little remains of the Co-Prosperity Sphere begins to unravel. News received from Tokyo, via another broadcasted tirade by General Ishii, sparks the Indonesian Mutiny. Already in its planning stages, Indonesia’s leaders use this news as the spark they need to spark a revolt. What follows over the next two months is a gruesome struggle for power between the local Japanese commander, General Kohaku Naoki, and the rebels, spearheaded by the now rogue Indonesian National Guard and Umar Malik’s Liberation Front. Massive atrocities are carried out against civilians by both sides; National Guard troops and Liberation Front militias murder Japanese civilians, while General Kohaku leads brutal retaliatory actions that see whole villages destroyed.
The Independence Movement is quick to recognize the Indonesian Confederation’s declaration of independence; even as fighting continues on both Java and Sumatra, the provisional government, led by Malik, is quick to declare Jakarta’s membership in the I.M.
Other Japanese commanders, cut off from contact with Tokyo due to the breakdown in communications, form their own warlord fiefdoms. In Indochina, General Tanaka Goro, nominally only in charge of the endless “banditry suppression actions” against nationalist rebels, turns the already puppet Indochinese emperor into his puppet. In Formosa, another naval leader, Captain Kato Juro, attempts to seize control of the island in support of Admiral Watanabe, only to be defeated and killed by the army commanders, who while publically pledging their allegiance to the Emperor, seize actual power for themselves.
Similar to the situation in Formosa, other Imperial Japanese Army commanders, in Bali, Borneo, Celebes, and Malaysia all declare their loyalty to the Emperor, while effectively acting as independent warlords. By the end of 1968, the Co-Prosperity Sphere has all-but ceased to exist. The warlords regard Ishii as a madman and an usurper to power.
August onwards: In a series of meetings held in the French city of Calais, British and French representatives forge out the Treaty of Calais: the new arrangement abolishes all travelling restrictions between the two nations, and also all business restrictions.
The Treaty of Calais are the result of years worth of lobbying by businessmen and intellectuals in both countries. Since the beginnings of the British and French recoveries from the devastation of the Second Great War, Anglo-French firms have been forced to compete with the massive German and Austro-Hungarian corporations. As a result, businessmen and inventors in both Britain and France have been forced to become more innovative and efficient when competing against their massive rival conglomerates. Beginning in the early 1970s, Anglo-French firms and products gain an international reputation for high quality and imaginative products.
The clause in the Treaty allowing for completely free travel between the two nations will prove to be very influential later on; this is seen by historians as a prelude to the Continental free travel zone signed in Vienna by the other states of the European Community 1971.
August 1st onwards: The second phase of Operation Elephant sees a C.D.S. landing on Japanese Timor. The island will be declared secure in mid-September, after a month of bloody fighting.
August 3rd onwards: In Bangkok, a successful coup by Thai-nationalist officers removes the puppet civilian government, along with the Japanese military “attaché” from power. Thailand’s new government, declaring a “new dawn” for the dynasty and for the Thai people, promptly requests admission into the Independence Movement, a request quickly granted within hours.
What follows is four months of conflict that sees Thailand’s army pitted against local Japanese forces, and then against the Burmese over their long-disputed border. Thailand’s new rulers accept assistance from Bharat and Bengal, who both send expeditionary forces to Bangkok in support of the new I.M. member. However, the Thais ignore the repeated pleas from Constantinople to halt their conflict with Burma.
August 6th onwards: Burma’s ruling junta, fearful of going the way of Thailand’s puppet regime, orchestrates the “emergency internment” of the local Japanese military attaché, and also requests admission into the Independence Movement. Unlike Thailand, however, Burma refuses the offer of assistance from their I.M. neighbors; Japanese forces in the north of the country, who had been assisting in Rangoon’s campaign against the Karen rebels, now abruptly find themselves pressed in by two hostile armies. By the end of 1968, Japan’s military forces in Burma have been all but destroyed.
Pushing Back & Crumbling Empire
September-December onwards: The Japanese Empire is reduced into an increasing shrinking cordon during the fall of 1968. On September 2, C.D.S. and Russian forces launch Operation Rainbow Dawn, the invasion of Korea. Smashing the Japanese defenses after a withering artillery and air bombardment, the allies quickly overwhelm the I.J.A. troops in the country, assisted by timely Korean uprisings in Pyongyang and Seoul. The last Japanese army on the Korean Peninsula is defeated at the Battle of Pusan on September 30, a one-sided fight between the allies and the remnants of the Kwantung Army.
On October 9th: A Korean provisional government, led by the nationalist exile Ryu Dai-Myung, is proclaimed in Seoul. On October 20th, Korea becomes the first former member of the Japanese Empire to be admitted into the Compact of Democratic States, even issuing a declaration of war against their former rulers.
The allied commanders begin to consider their next moves, as the strategy makers in Moscow and Washington plan their new targets. Viktor Turov wants to reclaim Sakhalin Island and the Kurile Islands.
The Ottomans and Brazilians work tirelessly to end the escalating conflict between Burma and Thailand, even as they assist the latter nation in removing the Japanese forces from the country.
In Indochina, the Vietnamese militias begin October with a surprise assault on the port city of Haiphong, capturing it in a bloody battle with the assistance of a timely mutiny by the local Imperial forces. An attempt to seize Hanoi, however, fails in the face of desperate Japanese opposition. General Tanaka, the de-facto ruler of the collapsing state, knows that his soldiers are now running low on ammunition, and now have to survive by forcibly taking food from the peasantry, which in turn only drives more young men into the nationalist resistance.
In Indonesia, the Japanese are reduced to fortified enclaves on Java and Sumatra, in the face of their numerically superior opponents. Jakarta falls to the Liberation Front and the National Guard on October 14, where Umar Malik proclaims himself president of the Indonesian Republic.
Representatives from the Independence Movement attempt to contact General Kohaku, who is offered a safe haven for himself, his soldiers, and all Japanese civilians throughout the Independence Movement. Now in utter despair since the fall of Jakarta, and afraid for what’s left of the Japanese community in the new Indonesia, Kohaku informs the Brazilian, Bharati, and Ottoman envoys that he will accept their offers of sanctuary. Authorizing his officers to formally broker the arrangement with President Malik, Kohaku commits seppuku. Malik, in turn, finally orders his soldiers to stop their assaults against Japanese forces. He remains adamant, however, that all Japanese must leave Indonesia as speedily as possible.
Over the next six months, all remaining Japanese in Indonesia, some 150,000 people, are resettled throughout the Independence Movement. Most choose Brazil, settling in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Curitiba—a prelude of the coming mass resettlement of Japanese refugees in that country. Smaller numbers are allowed to take up residence in Bharat and the Ottoman Empire.
In the face of these repeated disasters, General Ishii now begins to exhibit utterly arbitrary and brutal behavior, ordering several underlings executed for imagined mishaps. Fear pervades Japan, as what little remains of the old civic society is eradicated. Newspaper editors, industrialists, even teachers and doctors begin to vanish without a trace. Many Japanese begin to refer to them as the “Vanished Ones.” The activities of Japan’s labor movement, now almost entirely dominated by the underground Rodo Undo, have a new sense of urgency for their members. Many labor activists begin to ponder a future for Japan without its Emperor. Most ordinary Japanese civilians who oppose Ishii’s regime, however, are still staunchly loyal to the Emperor. Ironically, in most Japanese civilian circles, loyalty to the Emperor is increasingly explained and practiced as disloyalty to Ishii.
Food riots in the countryside are now so endemic that General Ishii has banned any mention of their existence. Also banned from publication are any reports on the increasingly long work stoppages throughout Japan’s industrial plant, or the alarming memos reporting on the soldiers who’ve apparently deserted their posts in the Home Islands.
General Ishii, however, controls the instruments of oppression throughout the Home Islands, even if the rest of the Empire has either fallen victim to warlordism or been lost to the enemy. Those in Japan’s decimated government who are not his complete sycophants have been cowed into a terrified silence. The Emperor, for his part, continues to reign but not to rule.
October 12th-October 27th: The Summer Olympic Games are held in Budapest, Austria-Hungary. The 1968 Games will be remembered primarily for their subdued atmosphere, due to the ongoing Fourth Pacific War. The Empire of Japan and the nations of the former Co-Prosperity Sphere are absent.
November 5th onwards: President Hubert Humphrey and Vice President Warren Magnuson manage to win an unprecedented third term, defeating the Democratic candidate, Senator James Rhodes of Ohio, and the Republican candidate, Governor Bryson Briggs of Nebraska. In spite of their solid electoral victory, the Socialist Party loses a large number of congressional seats to both the Democrats and the Republicans, as well as control of the House of Representatives, confirming the expectations by most journalists that the public would endorse Humphrey’s conduct of the war, but would want to make sure that any third term would see a divided government.
In his victory speech, delivered after an unusually quiet campaign, President Humphrey pledges to bring a fast end to the war, and to “win a final and just peace for our great nation in the Pacific and Asia.”
The Republicans also dramatically improve their performance in the new Canadian states (winning Manitoba and Saskatchewan), suggesting that the party’s “Northern Strategy” is starting to pay electoral dividends.
Although his party has lost its third presidential election in a row, Senator Joshua Blackford, reportedly on Rhodes’s short-list for Vice President, dramatically raises his national profile by campaigning strongly for the Democratic ticket and congressional candidates, raising speculation by commenters that the New Yorker will be the frontrunner for the Democratic nomination in 1972.
November 26th-December 2nd onwards: President Humphrey arrives in Honolulu for the start of a conference with allied leaders from throughout the C.D.S. and beyond. Lasting until December 2, the Honolulu Conference sees the allied leaders reiterate the demand for Japan’s unconditional surrender, a policy, according to Australia’s Prime Minister Arthur Thomas that, “applies to the tyrants in Manila and Singapore as much as it does to the big one in Tokyo.”
Viktor Turov also attends the conference, in his second face-to-face meeting with President Humphrey. Both leaders promise to each other to enhance their mutual security guarantees after the war, as well as to cooperate in the rebuilding of China. Turov also announces that the former puppet state of Mengjiang, under Russian control since July, will be turned over to the new government in Beijing.
Zhuang Lin does not attend the conference, but Humphrey does meet with the former general’s personal representatives. O.S.S. Director Thompson briefs the President on the prospects for China’s postwar recovery, as does former Xian station chief Morgan Reynolds. Reynolds, with his vast knowledge of China’s politics and society, greatly impresses Humphrey, and the Commander-in-Chief promises the intelligence agent a “bright future”. Reynolds will later cite this meeting as one of his inspirations to seek higher political office, over a decade later. Zhuang’s government will gain a massive boost in December when Manchuria’s rebel leaders formally acknowledge him as their president, and agree to fight under the wing of the new National Army.
General Ishii’s reply is predictable—he gives several very Featherston-like rants against the United States, but says little that hasn’t been heard before. In the United States, Ishii is seen, both by the majority of the public and the majority of the government, as a new incarnation of their hated Confederate enemy, and President Humphrey expresses his desire at the Honolulu Conference to see the Japanese dictator to, “leave office in the same manner [as Featherston].”
No one at the Honolulu Conference, however, can predict the upheaval that comes the following year. 1968 has seen the collapse of the Co-Prosperity Sphere. 1969 will see the collapse of Japan’s imperial government and society.
December 4th onwards: C.D.S. and Russian forces begin Operation Tunnel, to assist China’s National Army in driving the Japanese out of the rest of North China. They meet a demoralized resistance, and by the end of the month, allied forces have successfully secured all territory down to Shandong Province, capturing the port city of Qingdao on December 26. Many Japanese prisoners of war explain that they are honoring the Emperor by weakening Ishii’s regime, assuming that the “mad general” is plotting to seize the throne himself.
January, 1969 onwards: As the Fourth Pacific War begins to wind down in favor of the United States and the C.D.S., a small number of evacuees who fled the West Coast for the interior begin to return to their homes. Many evacuees, however (especially those old enough to remember the Confederate devastation of Philadelphia at the end of the Second Great War), elect to remain in their temporary homes until the conflict has concluded.
In Manchuria and northern China, C.D.S. forces race to find the remaining laboratories of Unit 731 and its affiliates. Thanks to knowledge gleaned from captured administrators and scientists, the remaining labs are methodically found and destroyed throughout the course of 1969.
In Southeast Asia, the Japanese Civil War continues in parallel with the other local conflicts: in Indochina, the Vietnamese rebels in Haiphong manage to capture Hanoi after the timely defection of the northern city’s Imperial Indochinese forces. In Haiphong itself, the rebels proclaim the establishment of the Vietnamese Republic on January 6th, 1969. This declaration also effectively formalizes the end of Indochina as any kind of united entity; the Vietnamese, who have been liberally supplied by the O.S.S. during their war against the Japanese, also express their desire to join the C.D.S. after the conclusion of the conflict.
In contrast to the Vietnamese, the Cambodian and Laotian rebels both have sought help from the Independence Movement in securing their independence, as well as favorable borders against the Vietnamese.
The border war between Burma and Thailand continues, to varying degrees of intensity. The scale of the fighting is somewhat limited by the ongoing Independence Movement-assisted campaigns in both nations against the remaining Japanese troops within their respective borders.
In January, Indonesian forces, assisted by soldiers from Bengal and Bharat, secure the island of Bali. By the end of the winter of 1969, Indonesia has asserted control over the remainder of the Lesser Sunda Islands (outside of former Japanese Timor, and the island arc of Flores, which are both under C.D.S. control by the end of that time period).
In China, fifteen percent of C.D.S. forces in Korea and Manchuria are redeployed south to assist the Chinese in securing the rest of their territory: with U.S. help, Chinese troops liberate Shanghai on January 30. Elsewhere in China, the Japanese continue their long retreat towards the coasts. The new Chinese National Army begins to restore order in the areas in which they control, cracking down as best they can on banditry in the countryside.
Throughout Japan, now descending into chaos outside of the major cities, hatred for General Ishii burns brightly throughout the population. The dictator is blamed for plunging the Empire into a catastrophic war, as well as (by much of the population) for plotting to undermine the Emperor’s rule.
The Rodo Undo continues its incitement of Japan’s workers, bringing about a general strike that begins on January 3rd. General Ishii is forced to call up military reservists to keep Japan’s transportation system from completely failing, leading to more mutinous grumblings from the ranks. However, after the Days of the Butterfly Swords, many soldiers remain afraid to express what they actually think of Ishii and his regime out loud.
One officer who increasingly doesn’t care about such consequences is Colonel Sakamoto Hayato. Sakamoto, formerly a staunch loyalist to the government’s policies, has lost all five of his brothers in the war, in Manchuria and New Guinea; Sakamoto’s wife has also died, in a B-64 raid the previous summer. Although spared from death during the Days of the Butterfly Swords, Sakamoto has lost contact with a number of his friends in the high command, including his mentor, General Ochi Daisuke.
As of January, Sakamoto is now in charge of “managing” the refugees who have congregated at a temporary camp outside of Kobe (and suppressing the growing activities of the Rodo Undo). However, Sakamoto has been driven to the edge by the traumas, both personal and national, of the previous year. His hatred for General Ishii now rivals his loathing of the Americans and the C.D.S.
Having read many of the Rodo Undo’s pamphlets, increasingly circulated amongst the refugees, Sakamoto has, to his own personal astonishment, started to find himself in agreement with large portions of their worldview, especially the need to “level” Japanese society as a prelude to sweeping away the “degeneracy, madness, and inequality” of the entire world.
January 1st onwards: Russia and Mongolia sign a “treaty of eternal peace and friendship” at a ceremony in Urga. This accord effectively Mongolia into a protectorate of the Russian Republic, a development that will become a major source of contention between Moscow and Beijing.
January 20th: Hubert Humphrey is inaugurated for his third term as president. His speech primarily addresses the coming postwar world, promising that America and the C.D.S., “…will leave no grounds for a new war.”
Within Humphrey’s cabinet, there is a division between the realists (who expect to leave Japan with some of its prewar territory intact), and the “hawks” who want to pursue the total dismantlement of the Japanese Empire itself. Neither side, however, wants an American military occupation of the Home Islands.
This division within the Executive Branch will be rendered moot, however, after the outbreak of the Japanese Revolution, at the end of the month.
January 27th-March onwards: Throughout 1968, and into January 1969, Emperor Hirohito has been plunged into utter despair. General Ishii has led his realm into an unwinnable war, and the misery that the general population of the Home Islands has been reduced to has reached the highest levels of the Imperial regime. Urged by Prince Konoe Fuminaro, the leader of what little remains of the pre-purge “Peace Faction,” Hirohito finally decides that he must circumvent the “mad general” and address the masses himself, and appeal for an end to the fighting. Konoe, eager to move forward with the plan as quickly as possible, arranges for a radio broadcast to go out from the Imperial Palace on January 27th.
Unfortunately, the plan is leaked by one of Ishii’s cronies in the Palace Guard to members of the Yuzhona secret society. Critically, however, the Guardsman does not know who is going to give the radio address, and assumes that Prince Konoe is attempting to “betray” the Emperor by inciting the population against the war. Enraged by this act of “duplicitous, cowardly treachery,” the Yuzhona decides to “remove” Prince Konoe before the address can take place. Two death squads arrive at the palace, and break into the bunker where the broadcast is to take place—the bodyguards having been removed by Ishii’s agent. Plunging into the studio, the fanatical officers brutally kill everyone in the room; among the dead is Emperor Hirohito.
Enraged by what has happened, and certain that Ishii is responsible for his sovereign’s demise, Prince Konoe and Lord Keeper Kido make their radio broadcast to the Japanese people. The news is made over visible sobs: “The Emperor is dead. General Ishii has murdered the Showa Emperor.”
As Thiago Amaral later describes the consequences of what is later called the “Funeral Broadcast,”—“Within the hour, there was an eruption of untold national rage. A people driven into the depths of human despair were now suddenly united, in a way that they never had been behind the Ishii War [the Japanese Worker’s Republic’s name for the Fourth Pacific War].”
January 28th onwards: Throughout Japan the consequences are almost immediate. Soldiers, even those ostensibly dependable to the regime, mutiny, along with their officers. Colonel Sakamoto, who hears the broadcast at the Kobe refugee camp, is among the mutineers, inciting both his soldiers and the refugees to action. In Tokyo, in his fortified bunker complex beneath the war ministry building, General Ishii only realizes that something is wrong when contact is abruptly cut off to the outside world. Ignorant of the Yuzhona attack, the general dies in an attack staged by several ultra-nationalist officers—his former cronies—who assume that he ordered an assassination of the Emperor.
End of the Japanese Empire
The capital, and the rest of Japan, now collapses into a state of anarchy. Several military units converge on the war ministry, determined to bring Ishii to justice for this final crime. Colonel Sakamoto arrives from Kobe on January 29, and quickly assumes control of the assault force preparing to seize the war ministry. The assault begins on January 30, and quickly overwhelms the few remaining Yuzhona fanatics who stand in their way. Ishii’s corpse is retrieved from the depths of the ministry, and is publically burned on Sakamoto’s orders.
Sakamoto, like many of the soldiers involved in the brief firefight, has seen what’s left of his worldview shattered by the death of the man held up for decades as a divine figure. The colonel, seizing Tokyo’s largest radio station, makes an address to the nation. In his strident remarks, Sakamoto declares that, “History has turned.
The madness of the evil, traitorous Ishii dictatorship is over. In order to move forward, Japan must be reformed and redeemed…” Sakamoto then proclaims, with the end of the Showa Emperor, and the anarchy now rife through the country, the establishment of, “a new republic: for and by the workers of our country. A Japanese Worker’s Republic.” He also proclaims himself the nascent government’s “First People’s Friend.”
This address is heard by many in the country, and quickly earns the colonel the allegiance of the scattered leadership of the Rodo Undo. Using his soldiers, Sakamoto orders the immediate arrest of all remaining officials of the old regime. His forces, with assistance from the city’s plethora of armed gangs of displaced workers, also seize the Imperial Palace, placing Konoe under effective house arrest.
This process is repeated throughout many of Japan’s industrial centers and refugee camps. However, in spite of this brazen seizure of power, not all military units in the Home Islands recognize Sakamoto new regime. The assorted Japanese warlords scattered across the former Co-Prosperity Sphere also refuse to recognize Sakamoto’s government. This begins a new and brutal sideshow of the Japanese Civil War, as the Home Islands quickly divide into factions support “First People’s Friend” Sakamoto, and the miniature warlord armies that call for the retention of the Imperial Way. Caught in the crossfire are Japan’s ordinary civilians, who, increasingly, care little about who wins the fight for supreme power—only for their own survival.
By March, the battle lines, while fluid, have somewhat stabilized: the Japanese Worker’s Republic, centered in Tokyo, controls the southern half of the country—while the north is ruled by an anti-syndicalist junta, under the joint domination of Colonel Maruyama Susumu and Colonel Maeda Yuuta, centered in the city of Sapporo, on Hokkaido.
This conflict also sees, like the ongoing battles in the Philippines, a clash between the two branches of the Japanese military: many naval units defect to the syndicalists—in revenge for the Days of the Butterfly Swords. These naval units—renamed by Sakamoto as the “People’s Fleet,” will give the Tokyo government a crucial advantage in this conflict, allowing the syndicalist government to raid, almost at will, enemy positions in the north.
In Washington, the reaction is confused. Although news of Ishii’s death triggers widespread celebrations across the country, the president’s reaction is far more guarded. Humphrey knows that the fall of Ishii’s regime will not bring about the surrender of the other Japanese warlords in East Asia. His Russian counterpart, however, is jubilant; Viktor Turov pushes Humphrey for a joint Russo-American landing in the north of the Home Islands—the Russian president hopes to regain not only Sakhalin and the Kuriles, but also a measure of control over Hokkaido in the final victory.
Humphrey, while non-committal about extending Russia’s control over Hokkaido, does agree that an assault against the anti-syndicalist forces could bring about a faster end to the war. Hard pressed against the syndicalists, the Northern Military Council is ill equipped to confront the full might of the allied armies.
March 3rd -July 1st onwards: March opens with the first stage of Operation Tiger Shark: the invasion of Hokkaido—dispatched on the night of March 3, the assembled Russo-C.D.S. force lands on the west coast of the island near the town of Otaru, after a massive air and seaborne attack. The allied armies, commanded by Generals Golovin and MacArthur respectively, quickly establish a beachhead after the demolition of the local coastal defenses.
In spite of bad weather, the allies manage to land a huge volume of men and material on the island. On March 6, the city of Sapporo falls, effectively dealing a deathblow to the cause of the Northern Military Council. With no time to establish proper fortifications elsewhere on the island, the Japanese are smashed in one skirmish after another across the length and breadth of Hokkaido. Colonel Maeda dies during the capture of Sapporo, while Colonel Maruyama eludes the invaders until May 25, when he is cornered and killed by Irish soldiers in the Sōunkyō gorges, along with the rest of his entourage.
Japanese resistance on Hokkaido, already demoralized by the death of Hirohito and the ascendance of Sakamoto, completely collapses after the death of Colonel Maruyama. Subsequently, Hokkaido is placed under a military government jointly coordinated between generals Golovin and MacArthur.
During the course of Operation Tiger Shark, Russian forces liberate the Kurile Islands, with assistance from U.S. naval and air forces, in Operation Vengeance. The landing of allied forces on Hokkaido also dooms the anti-syndicalist forces on Honshu. Sakamoto’s forces route the undersupplied and demoralized Council troops, capturing many—a large number of ordinary soldiers defect in exchange for a steady supply of food.
Sakamoto uses the miniature civil war to remake Japanese society in the name of syndicalism. Now a zealous convert to this political cause, Sakamoto proclaims the nationalization of all land (and natural resources) in a series of decrees passed in March. Power is declared, in the “Interim Worker’s Constitution” to derive from, “…the Japanese people, through their elected worker’s beneficent government and management.”
Besides land and resource nationalization, Sakamoto and his allies in the new regime push for other radical reforms during the spring of 1969—women gain the right to vote, all “feudal titles and awards” are declared “voided,” and steps are taken to encourage the restructuring of Japan’s economy along syndicalist lines. However, political freedom and expression remains sharply curtailed, with the Syndicalist Party guaranteed a permanent “monopoly” on political power by the newly drafted constitution, and the government continues to concentrate power in the hands of a small group of hardline ideologues.
Quietly, Sakamoto, in spite of his anti-Americanism, dispatches a personal envoy to meet with the allied powers on Hokkaido: the food supplies controlled by the syndicalists are running critically low, and the former colonel fears for the worse if the war continues.
The envoy, Rodo Undo leader Ono Noboru, arrives in Sapporo on June 15, after the allied forces receive (and accept) Sakamoto's secret radio appeal. Ono’s primary request is for the C.D.S. to end its blockade of the Home Islands, to relieve the food shortages. In exchange, Ono states that People’s Friend Sakamoto will accept the allied demand for unconditional surrender.
In Washington, President Humphrey pushes for the cabinet to accept the proposal: the Treaty of Sapporo, signed in that city on July 1, 1969, ends the war between the Japanese Worker’s Republic and the C.D.S. and the Russian Republic. The treaty’s main clauses include:
- The Japanese Worker’s Republic will turn over all war criminals sought out by the allied powers: this includes any surviving allies of General Ishii, and any scientist, administrator, or soldier involved in Unit 731 (and similar units). All surviving military planners behind the November 1967 chemical attacks on Australia are also to be turned over to the allies.
- The Worker’s Republic is forced to renounce all of Japan’s claims to territories beyond the Home Islands.
- The armed forces of the Worker’s Republic will be reduced to a standing army of 200,000 men, a skeletal naval coast guard, and no air force.
- All research into weapons of mass destruction is forbidden.
- C.D.S. and allied forces reserve the right to inspect any and all merchant ships approaching the Home Islands: upon the formal conclusion of the conflict, allied ships will spearhead food deliveries to the Japanese population.
- Hokkaido is to remain under joint Russian-C.D.S. military rule.
- The Kurile Islands, Sakhalin Island, and the Siberian provinces seized by Japan after the end of the Second Great War are to be turned over to the Russian Republic.
- The Bonin Islands, Guam, the Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and the Ryuku Islands are to placed under U.S. military rule.
- The state of war between China and Japan is brought to a close, with Japan forever renouncing all claims to Chinese sovereign territory.
Unmentioned in the Treaty of Sapporo is the planned final status of Hokkaido. Privately, Sakamoto isn’t opposed to having the northern island outside of the Worker’s Republic’s control: it will, he hopes, provide a “safety valve” to those elements in Japan’s new society who cannot and will not accept syndicalist rule. For the time being, Hokkaido remains under joint Russian-C.D.S. control; the island is also used by the allied authorities as a point of refuge for Japanese civilians and demobilized soldiers leaving Manchuria and Korea.
Many syndicalists in the new government are upset at the harsh terms. But they realize that rejecting the proposed treaty will mean a return to war, and untold devastation for the territory that they do control.
The warlords throughout the rest of East Asia angrily denounce the Treaty of Sapporo. Privately, many realize that with the Home Islands neutralized, the C.D.S. will now focus their attacks on their home bases.
May 1st: The German colonies of Gabon and Kamerun gain Advisory Councils.
July onwards: U.S. naval forces begin a concerted push in Japan’s former Pacific Ocean territory. Resistance varies from island to island: many Japanese soldiers have been struggling to stay alive on reduced foodstocks since the beginning of the C.D.S. blockade. Many commanders, scattered across many remote Pacific islands since the start of the conflict, learn for the first time of the deaths of the Emperor, the fall of General Ishii, and the outbreak and success of the Japanese Revolution. Most Japanese commanders recognize the futility of attempting to resist the overwhelming American force, and order their forces to surrender (out of a final spite to Ishii’s memory, in some cases). They also have no desire to offer their allegiance to the syndicalist regime in Tokyo.
The Americans do encounter more recalcitrant commanders in the Bonin, Mariana, and Ryuku Islands (which have been ruled by Japan for far longer than the other Pacific territories slated to come under U.S. control). The battles in these island chains will be gruesome for both sides, with the Americans finally winning do to overwhelming firepower and supply stocks. The fighting in the Ryukus will not come to a conclusion until early 1970.
July 3rd onwards: The beginning of Operation Cassowary—the C.D.S. drive against the Japanese warlord rulers of Celebes [OTL Sulawesi] and the Moluccas [In OTL known as the Maluku Islands]. Operation Cassowary is planned as a two pronged attack against the islands of Ambon and Halmahera.
The invasions, expected to conclude by the beginning of August, are not successfully concluded until August 30: this is primarily due to the mountainous terrain of Ambon Island, which proves to be greatly advantageous to the defenders, as well as tougher than expected resistance from the Japanese.
In the Philippines, Admiral Watanabe quietly makes contact with the Americans via radio frequency. Watanabe offers to end his “state of conflict” with the C.D.S. in exchange for any immunity from any postwar prosecution for himself and his officers. In exchange, the admiral invites allied forces to assist him against the “pro-Ishii bandit” General Yamazaki.
On July 15th, allied forces land unopposed at Manila, where their commander, Quebecois General François Talon, parlays with Admiral Watanabe. General Talon states that although Watanabe’s forces will be recognized as “co-belligerents,” in the specific fight against Yamazaki, this will hinge on the admiral returning, under C.D.S. custody, to Hokkaido, along with his forces, after the conflict. Knowing that he cannot defeat the allies in battle, Watanabe accepts these terms.
Watanabe is also forced to recognize the installation of a new civilian government in Manila, led by the Filipino nationalist (and former exile) Lumaban Gatan. Gatan proclaims, to widespread celebration in his new capital, the establishment of an independent Filipino Republic.
As one of his first diplomatic initiatives, Gatan petitions for his country’s admission into the Compact of Democratic States, which is quickly accepted at the C.D.S.’s New York headquarters.
Although Watanabe’s sailors and marines control Luzon and many of the immediate coastal areas of the Philippines, Yamazaki’s forces still control the interiors of many islands, including most of the southern island of Mindanao. Over the next seven months, allied forces, along with their Japanese “co-belligerents” continue a grueling assault against the recalcitrant forces of General Yamazaki.
With the Philippines now effectively neutralized as a major threat, a fresh wave of C.D.S. forces, under the command of Chilean general Alejandro Carrasco, sail from Australia and land at Haiphong on July 31, in support of the new Vietnamese government. General Tanaka, panicking, orders his remaining forces in Indochina to retreat southwards, in an attempt to delay an assault against Saigon. In short order, Vietnamese soldiers, with assistance from C.D.S. warplanes and armored forces, begin a brutal pursuit of the Japanese, capturing the cities of Thanh Hoa, Vinh, Hue, and Da Nang in rapid succession. By the beginning of September, allied forces are at the gates of Saigon itself.
August onwards: With the withdrawal of Japanese forces from their territories, Cambodia and Laos both declare independence, on August 6 and August 8 respectively. Both countries promptly request admission into the Independence Movement, which is quickly accepted in public statements from the Brazilian and Ottoman foreign ministers.
On the ground, Bharati, Bengali, and Thai soldiers cross the Thai-Cambodian border into that country against the retreating Japanese forces. The Independence Movement forces, however, are not prepared for the brutal civil war that they find themselves in the middle of, as they begin (vain) efforts to stop the fighting between the Cambodians and Vietnamese.
August 9th: Chinese forces, assisted by a small C.D.S. force, liberate Hong Kong.
September 3rd – 15th onwards: Vietnamese and C.D.S. forces begin their final assault on Saigon, in Operation Scorpion. The following twelve days sees horrific urban fighting between the allies and their desperate Japanese enemies, and much of the city is devastated in the process of its liberation.
The fighting comes to an end on September 15th, when a Japanese colonel, under a flag of truce, reveals to the allies that General Tanaka has committed seppuku. Subsequently, all remaining Japanese forces in the city are taken into custody. The now disposed Emperor of Indochina will be summarily executed by Vietnamese forces within days of Saigon’s capture.
September 19th onwards: C.D.S. forces, under General Jade and General Torricelli, land on island of Celebes. Facing them are the forces of the warlord General Yoshida Kaito. In a grueling campaign that lasts until mid-December, allied forces methodically force the Japanese into a shrinking cordon of territory. The fighting will end on December 16, after what’s left of the Japanese army on the island surrenders, after General Yoshida commits seppuku.
September 20th: Vietnam is formally admitted into the Compact of Democratic States.
September 27th onwards: Vietnamese and C.D.S. forces encounter Cambodian and Independence Movement forces in the Mekong Delta. With enforcement from both coalitions, the violence between the Cambodian and Vietnamese militias finally comes to an end—the end of the fighting also leads to a massive exchange of refugees, with Cambodians and Vietnamese caught on the wrong sides of the de-factor border leaving for their newly independent nations.
In the immediate aftermath of the Indochinese Theater of the war, the two coalitions attempt to negotiate a final accord between Cambodia and Vietnam on a new border. Talks breakdown between Phnom Penh and Saigon, however. On October 24th, 1969, the “Peace Zone” (PZ) is established between the two countries, supported on the Cambodian side by soldiers from the Independence Movement, and on the Vietnamese side by the Compact of Democratic States.
October 1st onwards: In Togoland, the population of the German colony votes on its political future: in a surprise to Berlin, the colony’s citizens vote for full union with the German Empire, as a co-equal part of the nation, over the options of maintaining the status quo, a looser “confederation” with Berlin, or outright independence.
Togoland’s vote for union with Berlin will greatly influence similar referendums held in the early 1970s in Germany’s other West African colonies. German political scientists and historians will later point out the economic prosperity of Togoland as the deciding factor for the 1969 decision. The actual ascension of Togoland directly into Germany will not occur until 1979, however, after a decade of heavy direct investment into improving the colony’s civilian infrastructure and social services.
October 1st - January onwards: October opens with the C.D.S. assault against General Yamazaki’s forces on Mindanao, in Operation Starfish. The campaign will be a long and grueling one, as Yamazaki’s soldiers resist fanatically.
October 4th onwards: In a surprise amphibious assault, C.D.S. forces, under General Carrasco, seize the city of Singapore, after a sustained bombardment of Japanese coastal positions by U.S. and Australian carrier-borne aircraft. The assault, codenamed Operation Cobra, is meant to compliment the Independence Movement’s invasion of Japanese-held Malaysia. The defenders of the city are quickly overrun, and all resistance ceases in the metropolis by October 10.
Bengali, Bharati, and Thai forces launch their attack into Malaysia on October 6, where they encounter a demoralized army commanded by the warlord General Oshiro Kohaku. Short on supplies, and not particularly eager to return to Hokkaido to face an uncertain future, Kohaku surrenders his forces at Kuala Lumpur to I.M. coalition forces on October 18, 1969. General Oshiro will accept Brazilian offers of sanctuary for himself and his soldiers.
A new Malaysia government is established in Kuala Lumpur, whose request to join the I.M. is quickly accepted.
Singapore remains, for the time being, under joint C.D.S. military rule, under General Carrasco. For now, the C.D.S. works on fortifying its new gains made over the previous year, in preparation for a possible operation against the Japanese forces still entrenched on the island of Borneo.
November onwards: In a massive humanitarian operation, American and Brazilian naval forces evacuate some 250,000 South African refugees, in the first of two “Great Evacuations.” The refugees are fleeing from the slow breakdown of South African society, as the violent confrontation between the apartheid regime and an increasingly organized rebellion driven by the “South African People’s Union” (SAPU)—a syndicalist inspired group led by Jonas Guiri, increasingly escalates. Most refugees are resettled in Brazil, while smaller numbers arrive in the United States. Another 50,000 refugees will be evacuated in December.
November-December onwards: The Fourth Pacific War begins to wind down throughout much of East Asia and the Pacific. In China, large numbers of Japanese POWs and civilians are evacuated with assistance from C.D.S. naval forces. Most of these evacuees are resettled on Hokkaido.
People’s Friend Sakamoto feels secure enough in power to announce, on November 10, the formal expulsion of Japan’s old royal family from the Worker’s Republic. Held under effective house arrest since February, the royal family arrives in Hokkaido on November 12th.
Throughout 1969, Sakamoto has consolidated his regime by allowing “all not with us” to depart for the northern island. Altogether, some three million people have left the Worker’s Republic for Hokkaido; other large waves of “voluntary emigrants” will leave in 1970, 1972, and 1973.
In a remote sideshow from the main centers of the conflict, Russian forces assist China’s National Army in destroying two warlord armies centered in the remote western city of Urumqi, in Xinjiang.
On December 1st: American, Chinese, and Russian envoys meet in Honolulu to sign the Pacific Economic and Security Accord (PESA). The new accord is primarily meant as an economic and security forum for the great powers of the Pacific Rim, as well as to formalize the friendly ties between Beijing, Moscow, and Washington. All signatories to the accord pledge to assist each other in any “unprovoked” attack from a third party on either of their countries.
President Humphrey hopes that the PESA will both prevent another Pacific War, as well as contain any possible threat from the Japanese Worker’s Republic, or another possible threat from unknown quarters. Many international observers remark that the PESA resembles a looser version of the C.D.S.
Over time, the Asian and Pacific members of the C.D.S. will also sign the PESA. The accord will later be used as a catalyst for loosening barriers to trade between the signatories of the accord over the coming decades.
Many members of the Independence Movement, particularly Bharat and the Southeast Asian members of that alliance, fear that the PESA will see Russian and U.S. support for any future Chinese “aggression” to the south. Many historians mark the signing of the PESA as the beginning of Bharat’s rise on the world political stage, as Delhi attempts to “contain” the spread of any potentially hostile powers on its frontiers.
January, 1970 onwards: During the course of the 1970s, the pattern of immigration to the United States begins to shift: immigration from Eastern Europe begins to wane, after almost a century of major waves. From the early 1970s onward, most immigration to the United States tends to come either from Latin America or East Asia. By the end of the 1970s, China has replaced Mexico as the number one source of immigrants to the United States.
The German Empire begins a massive investment program, on top of what it has already committed to thus far, to improve the infrastructure of its colonial empire in Africa. Known as the “Bayer Plan,” the projects are intended to prepare most of Germany’s colonial territories for some kind of home rule—the exact shape of which will be determined at a future date.
A growing concern, both for the Germans and the Portuguese in Africa, is the ongoing (and deteriorating) situation in South Africa, where the effective civil war between the government and the various anti-Apartheid groups has led to a huge displacement of refugees. Although some have been evacuated to the United States and Brazil, millions more have moved into German Southwest Africa and Portuguese Mozambique. They bring with them tales of a collapsed economy, of the atrocities committed by roving pro-government death squads (many of which are drawn from the sizable Confederate expatriate community in the country), and of the state terror inflicted by the regular South African army and internal security agencies.
For the government of Germany’s Chancellor Friedrich Bayer, a move by the European Community to restore order in the country seems to be a necessary step for ending the carnage and chaos erupting from the collapsing South Africa. Bayer, along with other German politicians and the Portuguese, also dislike the idea even the possibility of a syndicalist takeover of the country—led by Jonas Guiri’s South African People’s Union, one of the largest of the organized anti-Apartheid groups still operating in the country.
During the 1970s, most of the infrastructure projects throughout the Independence Movement, carried out through the Brazilian-Ottoman funded Alliance for Peace and Friendship, are completed. The two largest projects to come out these numerous “Great Rebuildings” are Colombia’s Isthmus Canal [On the site of OTL’s Panama Canal and Egypt’s Qattara Sea industrial zone, both of which are completed in 1972. The urban renewal projects, especially in the Brazilian and Ottoman Empires, are criticized for coming at the expense of rural areas, which are relatively ignored by comparison.
Most of the “Urban Farming” construction projects in the United States, started during the mid-1960s, are completed during this decade.
Throughout the 1970s, the economy of the Japanese Worker’s Republic is structured and molded according the philosophies of People’s Friend Sakamoto and the members of the Rodo Undo’s “Inner Core.” Outside observers in the JWR (of which there are very few) often point out that the massive unions that employ and cater to the needs of ordinary citizens have effectively occupied the same position formally held by the disbanded Zaibatsu.
Under Sakamoto’s policy of expelling anyone from the JWR who cannot “accept” the “joys and necessities” of syndicalism, three large waves of “voluntary” emigrants are forced to leave for Hokkaido during this decade: 700,000 in the 1970 wave, 550,000 in 1972, and 1,100,000 in 1973. Only heavy assistance from the CDS and Russia prevents the island’s meager support services from utterly disintegrating. Most of Japan’s former colonists in Southeast Asia follow the lead of those once in Indonesia and Malaysia, and accept Brazilian offers of asylum. By 1979, some six million former Japanese civilians, and other civilian collaborators from this vast region, have arrived in Brazil.
Only in the Philippines do a large number of former Japanese colonists remain (over seven million), their equality under the law protected by the new Pilipino constitution, ratified in 1971.
January 1st: Ireland adopts the US dollar as its legal currency.
Even as the fighting in the Philippines continues, the US and Filipino governments sign an agreement in Manila, in which the United States gains a 99-year lease on the former Japanese rocketry base at Tayabas Bay. Wrecked by bombers and missiles early in the Fourth Pacific War, the Tayabas Bay base, given the new name of “Big Liberty” by the Americans, will become an important part of the US-Russo-CDS effort in the upcoming “Space Chase” throughout the 1970s and beyond.
January 3rd: Bharat, after intense negotiations with both Burma and Thailand, begins stationing troops along a long Peace Zone between the two recent enemies, similar to the one separating Cambodia and Vietnam.
January 6th onwards: In a speech given in Beijing, President Zhuang Lin announces that the Municipality of Shanghai will, henceforth, be transformed into a “Economic Liberty Zone.” The ELZ, the first of its kind, will remove all barriers to foreign trade in the city, now reconnected to the world economy after decades of Imperial Japanese mercantilist restrictions.
With the success of the venture—which leads to an explosive boom in manufacturing and export-ventures in Shanghai, other Economic Liberty Zones will be established throughout China’s coastal provinces throughout the 1970s. Coupled with American/CDS reconstruction projects, the ELZs enable China to make a surprisingly rapid economic recovery from decades of war and repression. The help from the CDS, coordinated throughout the 1970s by the State Department and Ambassador Morgan Reynolds, is vital for the repair of basic infrastructure throughout a country marred by over five decades of civil war and foreign invasion.
January 8th onwards: The Japanese military council in control of the island of Formosa surrenders to a CDS task force dispatched from mainland China. Historians of the Fourth Pacific War will not learn until the 1990s that US commanders, speaking with the authority of President Humphrey, threatened to superbomb their military positions on the island unless they immediately surrendered. The Japanese POWs taken on Formosa are quickly transferred to Hokkaido; the island itself is quickly turned over to the Chinese, who take full control.
January 10th onwards: Independence Movement forces, spearheaded by Bharati and Bengali troops, land on the island of Borneo. Encountering little resistance from the Japanese (who are now effectively leaderless after the death of their warlord high command in a CDS bombing raid around New Year’s), the IM soldiers are ill prepared to deal with yet another civil war—this one between the Malays and the Bornean “nativists” (mostly Banjar and Dayak militias) on the other. The shattered island is placed under military rule, under the overall command of Bharati Field Marshal Gurjot Saluja. Although the violence finally peters out by the mid-1970s, the island, with its majority Malay areas joining Malaysia via referendum in 1976, the rest of the island will not enter the IM until the end of the decade.
January 16th: CDS forces, commanded by General François Talon, land virtually unopposed on the island of Mindanao.
January 18th onwards: Fighting comes to an abrupt end in the Philippines, as General Yamazaki’s officers, seeing that their cause, such as it is, is beyond hopeless, act to bring the conflict between themselves and the CDS-Watanabe forces on Mindanao to an end. When General Yamazaki refuses to countenance the idea of negotiating an end to their war, Yamazaki’s officers overpower and kill their superior officer. The leader of mutineers, Colonel Anami Iwao, establishes radio contact with General Talon’s forces that same day, and arranges for a truce. Two days later, in a ceremony in the city of Cagayan de Oro, Colonel Anami surrenders all Japanese forces on Mindanao to General Talon. Anami and his men will subsequently be disarmed and transported to the island of Hokkaido.
January 30th onwards: In a move that surprises few political observers, Morgan Reynolds is nominated by President Humphrey for the position of America’s first permanent ambassador to the Chinese Republic. He will be confirmed to the position to begin his post in February.
Throughout the first half of the 1970s, Ambassador Reynolds, with the backing of the State and Defense Departments, helps to coordinate a series of American and CDS reconstruction packages to assist in the rebuilding of China. US and CDS aid will be especially vital in rebuilding China’s shattered transportation and communications networks.
Reynolds will keep himself in the US domestic spotlight throughout most of the 1970s both through his high profile post in Beijing, and through writing several bestselling books on diplomatic and modern Asian history. One of his best-received works is In the Shadow of Two Wars, a biography that describes his life from childhood until his joining the OSS.
Mirroring an early agreement signed by Humphrey with the new Russian Republic in the 1960s, a select number of Chinese candidates are admitted into West Point, with their actual training commencing in 1971.
February-July onwards: With the end of the Fourth Pacific War, and the subsequent winding down of the US war effort, the American economy slips into a sharp recession, the worst downturn since the Business Collapse of the 1930s. With a spike in unemployment that doesn’t begin to erode until early 1972, the recession with have deleterious effects on the ruling Socialist Party.
February 10th onwards: The first elections for the Chinese Republic’s new National Assembly results in an almost unanimous victory for President Zhuang’s new Democratic Party of China. The DPC will hold uninterrupted power in this fashion (barring the occasional admission of a token opposition figure) for almost three decades, until this system of government becomes untenable in the mid-1990s.
February 14th onwards: With its second third annual concert, the Tucson Battlefield Jamboree gains international recognition for the first time, with the publishing of a series of articles by the Italian journalist and author Alessandro Colombo. He will later use his experiences at the musical event for a quartet of loosely related novels known as the “Mesa Saga”—published as Papa Mesa in 1971, Cousin Mesa in 1973, Little Mesa in 1976, and Uncle Mesa in 1977. The novels are controversial for their favorable portrayal of drug usage, and, as critic Trevor Brooks will admit in the Boston Herald upon finishing the final novel in 1977:”…I can’t tell: is it a western disguised in hallucinations, or hallucinations of a western?”
The United States Environmental Bureau begins a cleanup of the Hudson River, in cooperation with the major communities lining the waterway.
May 1st: Martial Law is ended on the Big Island of the Sandwich Islands. June 1st onwards: Held under the auspices of the Independence Movement, most of the disputed Bharati province of Kashmir votes to join Pakistan, although some areas (all Hindu-majority) vote to remain with Bharat.
The results spark a swell of outrage throughout Bharat. Some nationalist politicians call for their country to “reconsider” its relationship with the IM—although the Ottoman ambassador is subsequently expelled for over a year, Bharat does not actually leave the alliance. However, many Bharati politicians, fed up over the Brazilian-Ottoman dominance of the IM’s power structures, are eager to assert their country’s growing economic and military power, albeit within the alliance.
June 15th onwards: In the Rhodesian capital of Salisbury [OTL Harare, Zimbabwe], residents awaken to the news that the hardline government of Prime Minister George Brock has been forced to resign, with power being transferred to General Peter Locke. Locke, in his address on state television, announces that under his “temporary” rule, the long, bloody Turbulence, which has torn apart their country for five years, will be brought to a “swift and necessary end.”
Sponsored by the OSS, the coup has been in the work for months, and is supported by all branches of the regular Rhodesian military. With South Africa collapsing into civil war, Portugal beginning to limit trade, and the biting US sanctions, Locke has come to believe that only by quickly ending the country’s restrictions on voting can there be any hope for all of Rhodesia’s people, black or white. Locke, like many regular army officers, had also come to despise the Brock regime for its fulsome support for the extremist, paramilitary Rhodesian National Guard, whose atrocities have only fueled the Revolutionary Army’s insurgency.
As one of his first acts, Locke releases Josiah Muzorewa from prison, and invites him to assist the military in preparing elections for a new civilian government. Muzorewa also announces that he will participate in the elections as the leader of a new “Justice Party for Rhodesia’s peoples.”
This turn of events sparks a short, violent confrontation between Rhodesia’s regular army and the National Guard, with the Guard attempting its own (badly planned) coup on June 19. The Guard’s commanding officers find themselves under arrest. On July 30, the OSS is allowed to take custody of the RNG’s former superior officer, Brigadier General Norris Fielding. Fielding, wanted by the Americans for his role in overseeing the deportation of Florida’s black population to Featherston’s death camps during the Second Great War, will be tried from 1971 to 1973, convicted, and executed in 1975.
With Fielding’s arrest, President Humphrey will call for Congress to end the sanctions placed on Rhodesia, which will be repealed on August 25, 1970. With Muzorewa now appealing for an end to the fighting on Rhodesian radio, promising that now is the time for the country’s African residents to participate in the democratic process, the Revolutionary Army agrees to a truce on August 6, 1970.
July 4th onwards:Florida and North Carolina are readmitted into the Union. Also admitted on this day are the new states of Antigua, [OTL Antigua and Barbuda], Barbados, Grenada, and Trinidad [OTL Trinidad and Tobago] In Miami, Florida, during the midst of the celebrations of (regaining) statehood, ground is broken on the highway that will eventually link the mainland of North America with Cuba, via the planned floating tunnel. A similar ceremony is held in Havana, Cuba.
Due to a number of accidents, cost overruns, and safety concerns, the Florida-Cuba Interstate will not be opened until 1992. It will become one of the largest construction projects in human history.
November 1st: As expected by international observers, Josiah Muzorewa’s Justice Party easily wins Rhodesia’s first free elections. Muzorewa takes office of Prime Minister, and promises that his government will work to ensure “reconciliation and prosperity for all of the people of this bounteous land.”
December 26th onwards: Prime Minister Muzorewa announces that his government will establish a “Truth Commission,” which will aim to establish a truthful record of the atrocities committed in the country during the Rhodesian Turbulence. The Commission will seen later by historians as vital for ensuring the building of a stable civic society in the newly democratic country.
November 3rd: In the U.S. congressional midterm elections, the Democratic Party captures full control of Congress, helped by their sweep in readmitted Florida and North Carolina (although the Socialists make significant gains in the Senate from the new Caribbean states). Most political observers are quick to forecast that the 1972 presidential race will end with a landslide for the Democrats, who have not held the Executive Branch since 1961.
January, 1971 onwards: In an announcement held in Shanghai, a spokesman from the International Health Organization declares that outbreaks of disease (left over from Unit 731’s war crimes in the region) in Manchuria have been successfully contained, after over a year of frenzied work. However, the IHO’s work in the region remains incomplete—reports of outbreaks from north China still trickle into Shanghai, necessitating the importation of more medical personnel. By the end of the 1970s, China will have the world’s highest concentration of IHO personnel, along with the Congo.
January 1st onwards: In a ceremony in Sapporo, the CDS and Russian military administrators of Hokkaido recognize the new Republic of Ezo.  The new government will quickly sign a mutual defense agreement with the Russian Republic, and will thereafter be admitted as a member of the PESA.
February 2nd: In the Russian presidential election, Viktor Turov wins eighty percent of the popular vote in his reelection. The Socialist Party maintains its dominance in the Duma, with the Communists coming in at a distant second. Domestic and foreign observers alike credit the still rapidly growing economy, along with the remaining joy from their victory in the Fourth Pacific War, with Turov’s landslide win.
February 15th onwards: In a development that takes international observers by surprise, Rhodesian Prime Minister Josiah Muzorewa announces that his nation has applied to join the Compact of Democratic States. The application will quickly be accepted by the alliance. Rhodesia is the second African nation, after Liberia, to join the CDS.
Contemporary observers and historians will both note that Muzorewa’s motivations for joining the CDS include lingering anger at the Independence Movement, and particularly the Brazilians and Ottomans, for sponsoring Thomas Sithole’s breakaway faction of the old Rhodesian People’s Union, early in the Turbulence.
March 2nd onwards: Bernard Polgar, the Austro-Hungarian engineer behind the “Combine” theory of computer interaction, begins a new job at Siemens. At the German mega-corporation, Polgar continues to advocate for the building of a new computerized grid, both in Austria-Hungary and Germany, to enhance communication and the wider flow of information. Quietly, Germany’s military has been copying Austria-Hungary’s experiments, as well as the US Department of Defense’s secret “Edison Bureau.”
April 1-December 20, 1971 onwards: The Hong Kong Trial opens. Being judged, by judges from Australia, China, Russia, and the United States are twenty-five former Japanese military men and politicians accused of committing war crimes during the Fourth Pacific War. Among those on trial are the surviving administrators from Unit 731, military doctors accused of committing grisly “experiments” at Unit 731’s bases in Manchuria, and the few remaining wartime flunkies of General Ishii—turned over by the Japanese Worker’s Republic as per the terms agreed in the 1969 Treaty of Sapporo.
On December 20th, the judges read the verdicts: out of the twenty-five defendants, all are found guilty. Twenty-two are sentenced to death (included in this group is every defendant associated in any way with Unit 731), while the remaining three are given life sentences. Those spared the death penalty will spend the rest of their lives in a US military prison on the remote uninhabited Baker Island.
January-March, 1971 onwards: Germany’s remaining West African colonies vote to hold referendums on the nature of their future association with Berlin.
Elfenbeinkuste [OTL Côte d'Ivoire] and Sierra Leone, both of which have become very wealthy over the last thirty years (from agricultural exports and mining respectively) follow Togoland in voting to seek full ascension as an equal constituent member of the German Empire.
By contrast, Dahomey [OTL Benin], Goldene Küste [OTL Ghana], Guinea, Senegambia [OTL Senegal and the Gambia, all vote to end direct German rule. Negotiations with Berlin, beginning in March of 1971 and concluding in December of that same year, will lay the groundwork for the establishment of a new association, to be established before the end of the decade.
Like Togoland, Elfenbeinkuste and Sierra Leone both receive massive influxes of monetary to bring their infrastructure fully up to par with Germany itself.
March 10th – 19th onwards: The Copenhagen Summit is held between representatives from almost every country on Earth. The Summit, held in the Danish capital under the auspices of the United States, Germany, and Austria-Hungary, results in the Copenhagen Accords on Biological and Chemical Warfare: under the terms of these Accords, these forms of warfare will henceforth be outlawed. Weapons programs in these fields are also outlawed. Signed in reaction to the horrors committed by the Japanese Empire during the Fourth Pacific War, the Copenhagen Accords are the largest show of international unity since the end of the Second Great War.
The Copenhagen Summit is one of the only major world events during the 1970s attended by both representatives from the Republic of Ezo and the Japanese Workers’ Republic.
June 15th onwards: In Vienna, a spokesman for the European Space Combine announces that the first man has been successfully launched into orbit, from the joint German/Austro-Hungarian rocketry base in German East Africa. The man, Austro-Hungarian “Weltraumsmann” (Space Man) Jonáš Švejk, circles the Earth three times before splashing down in the Indian Ocean.
This latest success on the part of the Germans and Austro-Hungarians, in the field of space exploration, sparks an uproar in the United States, where the Democrats attack the Humphrey Administration for failing yet again to overcome the ESC’s space-born lead.
Senator Joshua Blackford is among the strongest critics of the president, and calls for the United States to redouble its efforts on space exploration, “…for our prestige, and for a glorious, limitless new frontier.”
July 1st, 1971-December 31st, 1979: Operation Kaiser’s Landing begins on July 1 with a massive German-Portuguese-Austro-Hungarian invasion of war-torn South Africa. Long planned and expected by the rest of the world community, the initial invasion is over within a month of its launch, with the beleaguered South African government offering little resistance. A military government is installed in Johannesburg, led by the triumvirate of German General Georg Schultz, Austro-Hungarian Field Marshall Jacenty Piotrowski, and Portuguese General Ulisses Belmiro. Most of the soldiers under the respective direct command of the German and Portuguese leaders are units comprised of (and commanded in the field) by black Africans.
Along with the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Portuguese presence, soldiers are present from multiple nations in the European Community. This is the largest intervention on the part of the old Central Powers since the end of the Second Great War.
Although the initial invasion goes smoothly, the peace proves to be far harder to win. Although the EC military government almost immediately overturns all laws related to the enforcement of apartheid, some radicals in the country are not satisfied. The South African People’s Union is the largest remaining opposition force in the country (with many of the earlier, more conciliatory opposition figures long since killed off by the preceding Apartheid regimes). Led by a strident Jonas Guiri, the SAPU refuses to disarm, and threatens a return to civil war; Guiri desires to build a new state inspired by the example of the Japanese Worker’s Republic; the SAPU is supplied by the Independence Movement, in terms of weapons.
Likewise, many members of the former government-sanctioned death squads also refuse to hand over their weapons, retreating into the countryside to wage a guerilla war against the EC forces. Many former operatives of the former Apartheid regime join them, including Schalk Viljoen, the last Police Minister.
From 1971 to 1975, EC forces find themselves engaged in a guerrilla war both against the SAPU and the equally “dead enders” from the old regime. In the midst of this carnage, the American OSS also gets involved, mostly to hunt down wanted Confederate war criminals—Jimmy Beverage, the agent and assassin who spearheaded similar missions in Rhodesia during the Turbulence, now preforms a similar role in South Africa. The dragging out of the war, and the increasingly stiff casualties in the field causes a fall to the Bayer government in the 1972 German elections, which returns the Conservative Party to power in Berlin. The new Chancellor, Kunibert Mann, vows to conclude the South African War “successfully, and with honor.” In 1975, with the death of Schalk Viljoen (at the hand of Portuguese forces), the situation somewhat stabilizes, long enough for the EC military government in Johannesburg to grant independence to the Zulus, whose new Republic of KwaZulu-Natal is quickly admitted into the Independence Movement.
By 1975, most of the suspects wanted by the OSS are either dead or waiting to stand trial in the United States.
SAPU, however, proves far harder to deal with. Guiri’s forces are slowly forced back into a tighter and tighter cordon, centered in the rural regions of the former provinces of Orange Free State and Transvaal. Running low on ammunition and morale, Guiri himself is captured by Austro-Hungarian forces while trying to flee into Great Zimbabwe in 1977. Guiri will spend the rest of life imprisoned on the German-ruled island of Pemba, where he dies in 1983. With their leader gone, SAPU collapses into numerous armed bands, which are slowly wound up, one by one, by the new South African government with EC assistance.
With the guerrilla war now at an end, power is held by a weak central government in Johannesburg, with a considerable level of devolution granted to the provinces. Most EC troops are withdrawn after the capture of Guiri, though a small force (mostly German, Austro-Hungarian, and Portuguese) remains to complete the training for South Africa’s new military force. The very last of these troops will be withdrawn, with little fanfare, at the end of the decade. This long conflict will be very controversial in Germany and Austria-Hungary for decades to come, with a fierce debate emerging in both societies on whether or not the conflict was worth it.
July 9th, 1971-1985 onwards: Sergei Derzhavin’s novel Sunrise is published. A veteran of the Fourth Pacific War, Derzhavin’s novel follows the adventures of a quad of soldiers fighting against the Japanese in both Siberia and Manchuria. Something of a black comedy, the novel is an instant bestseller in Russia, and later becomes popular in both Germany and the United States as well.
Derzhavin’s work, the first of a trilogy of war novels—followed by Sunset in 1977 and Moonrise in 1984, is seen by many observers as the spark of the First Wave of the “Russian Renaissance,” a time of unprecedented artistic, cinematic, and literary output that establishes the Russian Republic as one of the world’s major cultural centers. Lasting, in various waves, well into the twenty-first century, the Russian Renaissance is marked by what the Russian historian Alexander Zarubin calls, in his 1989 book For Our World, “…a time of coming to terms with the past, and a time of celebrating life.”
Other famous works stemming from the Russian Renaissance include poet Galina Illyina’s major collections—published in 1974, 1979, 1982, 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2009—the “magic fantasy” operas of Artur Samoylov and Natasha Ivanova, and the explosion of science fiction inspired by the continuing global space race throughout the 1970s and beyond. Russian music also gains a new global audience during this period of ferment, especially the “New Classical” compositions of Florentina Kharlamova, Vitaly Petrov, and Antonina Sidorova, among others.
Perhaps the most famous Russian film to emerge from the Russian Renaissance’s First Wave is Vladimir Yurkov’s 1976 science fiction epic Mother Earths—a tale told from multiple points of view, set in the far future on a world colonized both by humans and a race of intelligent bear-like aliens.
August 1st onwards: In Vienna, the member states of the European Community sign the Treaty of Vienna, which establishes the Continental Zone (CZ)—a travel zone that will allow all carrying a passport from an EC member state to travel across borders without any hindrance from border guards. The CZ will be put into effect on January 1, 1979.
November 1st onwards: In Mexico’s first post-Fourth Pacific War election, the Liberal Reconstruction Party, which has dominated the country since 1959, loses in a landslide to the Socialist Party of Mexico, in a massive surprise. The new Mexican president, Otoniel Vasquez, pledges to address the yawning divide between Mexico’s rich and poor, and also promises an ambitious series of reforms to address the issues of land reform, educational reform, and urban squalor.
President Humphrey congratulates Vasquez, and pledges to assist his new Mexican counterpart through the institutions built up by the CDS.
1972 onwards: With the publication of Simon Wells’s poem “Gas Mask Summer” in the Los Angeles cultural magazine Rabbit Hole, the so-called “Nihilist” cultural phenomenon explodes into the American mainstream.
The term “Nihilism” is something of a misnomer, as critics throughout the world use the word to describe a plethora of varied movements. In general, Nihilist art, film, and writing can be divided into two broad “schools”:
American Nihilism is generally marked by bleak themes, rooted in the reaction of the US public to the horrors of the Fourth Pacific War. Underlying many of the apocalyptic poems, novels, and short stories that emerge in this branch of Nihilism is a fear and resignation that the history of the modern world has been marked with endless conflict—with horrifying wars having been fought roughly every twenty years since 1914—American Nihilism tends to play on this general fear in U.S. society that somehow, somewhere, their country will be plunged into another war sometime in the 1980s.
The most extreme producers of American Nihilism propagate the idea that all leaders have the real potential to transform into a Featherston or an Ishii at the drop of a hat.
Also lumped in with the dawning of American Nihilism by cultural observers (and later historians) is the explosion of both of survivalist groups and motorcycle gangs, in both the United States and Australia (another center for “American” Nihilist output and thought).
The gas mask becomes an important and recurring motif in American Nihilist output, perhaps most memorably displayed in Felix Krakowski’s 1974 film Whistling Boulevard—later described by critics and historians as one of the most depressing movies in cinematic history.
The Southern Holocaust is another subject that is explored through the grim lens of American Nihilism, with a number of novels and films coming out on the great tragedy. One of the most notable films dealing with the Southern Holocaust is Ivan James’s 1975 Follow the Leader, which is loosely based on the notorious career of the war criminal Jefferson Davis Pinkhard—the film is one of the first of its kind to explore the Southern Holocaust from the perspective of one of the perpetrators.
One piece of cultural output that gets popularized alongside (and for a time, as part of ) American Nihilism is the subgenre of “Speculative History” (better known as “Spec Fics”)—literature that attempts to imagine history-gone differently. The most famous Spec Fic from the 1970s is Greg Bliss’s 1974 novel Doctor Lexington, which has, as its bleak setting, a world in which Featherston’s Confederacy won the Second Great War, and went on to dominate the New World.
European Nihilism, in contrast to its American counterpart, is even more varied and extreme. Lacking the bleak, apocalyptic visions from across the Atlantic, European Nihilist groups promote a philosophy rooted in anarchism and hedonism—of always living in the moment. Especially prominent in Austria-Hungary, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Romania, and the United Kingdom, Nihilist groups, comprised heavily of former college students, often form into gangs—which quickly gain notorious reputations for debauchery and violent mayhem. The largest and most notorious European Nihilist groups are the Italian Squadrismo, which consist of independent “squads” of rival motorcycle gangs that move rapidly around the country, fighting pitched battles with the police, and with each other.
Other extremely violent Nihilist gangs emerge in Germany and the United Kingdom during the 1970s, sparking harsh police crackdowns that will end the worst of this hooliganism by the end of the decade.
European Nihilists become notorious for their anarchic styles of dress (with gangs borrowing styles from American cowboys, highwaymen, Japanese syndicalism, musketeers, Napoleonic era soldiery, and pirates). A lot of European Nihilist music consists of redoing classical music with modern instruments and styles. One art form that emerges in the 1970s from European Nihilism, and ultimately outlasts it, is the Surrealist film genre that emerges in both Britain and France.
Surrealist films, as exemplified by the 1975 British black comedy The Man Who Only Ate on Tuesdays, dwell heavily on the questionable nature of reality—perhaps the most radical Surrealist film in this regard is French director Gaubert Yount’s 1977 faux-documentary Authorship, which has its “scientist” narrators earnestly claim that the world is actually a totally fictitious construct—“A dark mirror, a mockery of someone else’s reality.”
Nihilism does not catch on everywhere, however. The two broad Nihilist schools fail to make much of an impact in the Russian Republic, where the output of the ongoing “Russian Renaissance”, combined with the national afterglow of their victory in the Fourth Pacific War, blunts the emergence of something similar to Nihilism there. In the Japanese Workers’ Republic, culture is sharply defined, beginning in the early 1970s, by the approved genre of “Syndicalist Realism” which is ostensibly meant to celebrate the country’s “all workers’ nation. In state-sanctioned writings and films using Syndicalist Realism as their template, the formula usually portrays a single worker who must be “educated” to the ideal of a good and loyal Syndicalist.
Adeela Vivekananda, the Bharati journalist writing in the JWR for the Times of Bharat often mocks these works in his dispatches home to Bharat. The head of the Union for the People’s Culture, Mori Tokiwa, blasts Nihilism as, “…bleak expressions of the mercifully ending curtain of international exploitive capital.” February 3rd - February 13th onwards: The 11th Winter Olympic Games are held in Minsk, Belarus.
February 8th onwards: Construction is completed on Brazil’s Atlantic Star Center. Brazil will launch its first satellite on December 24. April 21st: The United States Environmental Bureau begins its cleanup of Boston Harbor.
April 28th onwards: Oil is discovered in Sagavanirktok Bay [OTL Prudhoe Bay], in America’s Alaska Territory. Over time, it proves to be the largest known oil field in North America, surpassing even the massive East Texas Field.
One long-term consequence of the discovery of the Sagavanirktok Field is the “Oil Rush”, which brings a large number of people into the Territory hoping to replicate or even surpass the find.
President Humphrey announces that he supports efforts to “safely explore” the possibility of building a pipeline from the oil fields to the opposite end of Alaska Territory, to quickly bring the petroleum to market.
August 26th - September 5th onwards: The thirty-first Olympiad is held in Rio de Janeiro. This is the first Olympiad held in South America.
The Rio Games is also the first major venue for a new kind of art and architecture, which will later be popularly known worldwide as “Brazil Deco” in the 1980s, when it becomes wildly popular on the world stage, particularly in the United States and the German Empire.
The Japanese Worker’s Republic is notably absent from this event—People’s Friend Sakamoto, in a long, rambling speech made earlier in the summer of 1972, having declared the Olympics to be, “…a vile lie, deviating the attention of the global masses from their true calling.” In the same speech, however, Sakamoto proclaims that the JWR will establish its own “Popular Olympiad,” to be held annually beginning in 1973.
November 7th: As expected, the Senator Joshua Blackford of New York and Senator James Rhodes of Ohio win an easy victory in the United States presidential elections, over Socialist Governor Terrance Hobson of California, and Republican congressman Philip Ioannidis of Nevada. The Democrats also cement their hold over Congress, although the Republicans also make solid gains in that body (mostly against the Socialists in the Canadian states).
Blackford is the first son of a president since John Quincy Adams to become commander-in-chief. He is also the first Jew to be elected to the office of the presidency.
Observers and historians generally agree that the post-Pacific War recession, along with a general public fatigue with the Socialists after President Humphrey’s three terms in office, is responsible for the Democrats’ solid win. Some observers compare Blackford’s victory with that of Tom Dewey’s landslide after the end of the Second Great War, in 1944.
November 9th onwards: In one of his first public addresses after his victory, President-elect Blackford announces his choice for Secretary of State: the chairwoman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Mildred Morrell-Quigley of Kansas.
The daughter of the late Second Great War hero General Irving Morrell, Senator Morrell-Quigley has a hawkish reputation when it comes for foreign policy, having written several books, and many articles on the need to “aggressively contain” any regime that threatens the United States. In spite of her many political differences with the Humphrey Administration, Morrell-Quigley was a strong supporter of that president’s hardline policies toward General Ishii’s Japanese Empire; she also sat on the revived Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War during the duration of the conflict.
The first woman to be nominated as Secretary of State, Morrell-Quigley will be quickly confirmed to her post by the Senate after a fairly placid debate, in January 1973.
December 1st onwards: In the Bharati city of Chennai, representatives from Bharat, Bengal, Burma, Cambodia, Hyderabad, Nepal, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Thailand sign a treaty establishing the Indian Ocean Security Pact (IOSP), a military alliance that promises to, the words of Bharati Prime Minister Ardhendu Kocchar, to be, “…a pact to enhance mutual security and respect in our turbulent part of the world.” Known both in Bharat and abroad colloquially as the “Chennai Pact,” the IOSP is seen by international observers as an alliance directed primarily against China and the CDS in Southeast Asia.
Others remark that the IOSP is also meant to primarily serve as a vehicle to enhance Bharat’s status in the Independence Movement. Historians will also see the IOSP as part of a continued backlash in Bharat against the Ottoman Empire, on whom many politicians lay the ultimate blame for the loss of most of Kashmir to Pakistan. December 2nd: In Australia’s first post-Fourth Pacific War elections, the Liberal Nationalist Party emerges triumphant, the first time since before the Second Great War that a conservative party has held power in the country. Sir Christopher Jade, recently retired from his military position and new leader of the Liberal Nationalists, becomes Prime Minister.
In his victory address, Jade promises to continue Australia’s close alliance in the CDS, and also that Australia will, “…not back down from a confrontation with any future enemy.” This is taken by reporters to be a thinly veiled swipe against the recently founded Chennai Pact.
December 14th onwards: Construction is completed on the Ottoman Empire’s Crescent Base. With Brazilian assistance, the Ottomans will launch their first satellite into orbit on January 18, 1973.
January 1st - March 22nd onwards: In Madrid, a student protest against overcrowding at the Complutense University of Madrid quickly swells into huge protest marches against the military regime that has ruled the country since before the Second Great War. People from all walks of life join the students, and additional protests soon spread to other Spanish cities—with the largest one in the country occurring in Barcelona.
At first, the military regime, headed by General Ximeno Domínguez, refuses to make any concessions; the general threatens to declare martial law unless the protests are immediately halted.
However, the soldiers facing the protesters, for the most part, refuse to treat them with the brutality ordered by their officers. The Spanish junta, never liked by Berlin or Vienna, is ordered by the ambassadors from both nations to refrain from “lawless violence.” Fearing that the Germans and Austro-Hungarians will intervene otherwise, the rest of the junta forces General Domínguez to resign on March 22. Promises are made on national television that there will be an “orderly transitition” to face the “new circumstances” of Spain’s situation.
January 20th onwards: In his short inaugural address, President Blackford promises to hasten the re-integration of the former Confederacy into the Union, and to continue Humphrey’s policies to rebuild China and the CDS’s East Asian member states. Blackford also promises that under administration, the United States will achieve global primacy in scientific and technological development, which is interpreted by most observers as laying down the gauntlet towards the Germans and Austro-Hungarians in the emerging “Space Chase.” Blackford links the Space Chase and the need for technological superiority with sparking a new economic upswing, after the years of postwar recession. Blackford also promises to reduce barriers to trade with the member states of the CDS, and also to reform and reorient the US military, now that Japan is no longer a threat.
The Republican Party returns
January 30th onwards: The Republican Party, to the surprise of many political observers, selects former Iowa Congresswoman Karen Driver as its new chair. Driver, the first woman to head the arm of a major American political party, promises to revamp the Republicans’ long moribund electoral fortunes. While promising to continue the party’s “Northern Strategy” in the Canadian states and the industrial Midwest, Driver also announces plans to augment the party’s strength at the local and state levels. She refers to this plan as one of “Permanent Offense”—a phrase that quickly catches on in the press.
February 21st onwards: After much debate, the US Congress approves the establishment of a new Department of Technology. Meant by the Blackford Administration as tool to surpass the German and Austro-Hungarian lead in space-related technologies, the Department (in tandem with the Defense Department’s secret “Edison Bureau”) primarily operates by granting financial incentives to inventors, as well as entrepreneurs attempting to start up “big tech” companies.
March 20th onwards: In a press conference at the White House, President Blackford confirms that the United States, in cooperation with the government of Vietnam, will establish a massive new air and naval base near the city of Saigon. Although Blackford does not say so directly, most international observers agree that the new facility—planned to be one of the largest of its kind in the entire CDS—is directed against the Chennai Pact.
May 1st onwards: The first “Popular Olympiad” is held in the Japanese Worker’s Republic, in the city of Kobe. Most foreigners will only know the event through the acerbic lens of the Bharati journalist Adeela Vivekananda, who notes in several dispatches to the Times of Bharat that Sakamoto and the other members of the Rodo Undo’s Inner Core have visibly gained quite a bit of weight since their rise to power.
In Ottoman-ruled Georgia, a new nationalist movement, the New Georgians, makes its first public demonstrations in Tbilisi. Demanding autonomy, and legislation to preserve the Georgian language, the demonstrations are rapidly broken up by the local authorities.
The Russians take note of the emergence of the New Georgians, and will begin actively supporting the movement’s activists financially throughout the rest of the decade and into the 1980s, until the outbreak of the Russo-Kazakh War in 1985. May 8th: The Russian Republic launches its first satellite from the La Follette Space Center in Cuba. The launch is attended both by Russia’s President Turov and President Blackford.
June 4th: US Air Force Colonel Robert DeFrancis becomes the first American (and the second man) to orbit the Earth, after being launched from the La Follette Space Center in Cuba. President Blackford is among those who watch the takeoff in person, having returned less than a month after visiting the facility with his Russian counterpart.
July 4th: In a speech at San Francisco’s Bull Palace, President Blackford gives what journalists quickly come to call his “Pacific Speech.” In his address, the president lays out what historians will later refer to as the “Blackford Doctrine”—that the United States will reorient its military might primarily to the CDS’s new “frontlines” in the Philippines, Singapore, and Vietnam, while continuing to maintain a large presence in Australia. To maintain military dominance in the Pacific and Southeast Asia, Blackford states that his administration will increase investment in the Navy and the Air Force.
Alabama and Mississippi are readmitted into the Union. Also joining the Union on this date are the new states of St. Lucia, St. Kitts [OTL St. Kitts and Nevis], and St. Vincent [OTL St. Vincent and the Grenadines][/I].
October 15th onwards: The Vietnamese government announces the establishment of its own Economic Liberty Zones in its coastal cities, starting with Haiphong and Saigon. This proves to be the beginning of what becomes known in Vietnam as the “Doi Moi” (“Revolution”) a series of policies by the nationalist government to open the economy to foreign trade and investment. Unsurprisingly, the United States is granted “Most Favored Nation” status as a trading partner.
November 1st: Madagascar gains an Advisory Council.
November 22nd onwards: In one of his biggest diplomatic triumphs, President Blackford negotiates a moratorium on testing additional superbombs or sunbombs with Chancellor Mann. Agreed to in a summit held in Frankfurt am Main, the moratorium will be confirmed both by the US Congress and by the Reichstag in 1974. January onwards: A new amendment to the US to the constitution is ratified, limiting the a president to two terms in office. This is widely seen by political analysts as something of a backlash against another commander-in-chief winning a third term.
January 1st onwards: In an announcement in Berlin, a spokesman for the supersonic Eagle Airways announces that service will be expanded to Chicago, Munich, Prague, Rome, and Sofia. Over the next five years, infrastructure in all of these cities will be adjusted accordingly to handle this new kind of traffic. April 2nd: Persia joins the Chennai Pact, to the alarm of both the Ottoman Empire and Pakistan.
April 4th onwards: Spaniards go to the polls to elect their first civilian government since before the Spanish Civil War, almost forty years prior. Forced by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians to adhere to the demands of the student-led “Madrid Movement,” the election is split between Spain’s long underground liberals and socialists, with the socialists receiving a plurality of the vote.
The new Spanish president, the Spanish Socialist Party’s Ramiro Martínez—a former exile—promises an end to, “…all lies and abuses from your government.” Martínez promises to call a constitutional convention—in the same spirit as Russia’s post-revolutionary meeting, to create a new document to ensure the continuity of Spain’s new democracy.
June 5th onwards: A series of clashes occur between Chinese and Tibetan forces on their disputed border. From Beijing, President Zhuang warns that further violence will lead to a “massive, inevitable” punishment. From New Delhi, Prime Minister Kocchar warns Zhuang that any attempt to occupy Tibet on the part of China will lead to an “instant” Bharati intervention.
Sandwiched between the two Asian great powers, Tibet, long isolated, is now, in the word of one OSS analyst summarizing for the president, “Utterly trapped.” Long invited to join both the Independence Movement and now the Chennai Pact, the Chinese have in turn warned that joining either alliance will mean immediate war. Tibet, effectively coveted both by Bharat and China, is seen by most intelligence agencies as the most likely spark for another major war.
July onwards: Copying China and Vietnam, the governments of Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand announce the establishment of their own national Economic Liberty Zones—Bharat, Brazil, and the Ottoman Empire are all granted the status of “Most Favored Nation” for the purposes of trading in all of these countries.
August 19th: After years of repair work, Borneo’s massive Balikpapan oil refinery is brought back to full strength.
November 5th: In the US midterm elections, the Socialists make gains against the Democrats, regaining a large number of lost seats from the 1972 elections, especially in the Canadian and Mid-Atlantic states.
The Republicans, once again, pick up a large number of seats, especially in California and the Midwest (although losing some in the Canadian states), giving credit to Chairwoman Driver’s electoral strategies. After this election, the Republican Party now possesses a sizable caucus in both the House of Representatives and the Senate: political observers note that even as America’s “third party,” the Republicans possess two wings—a liberal wing that tends to vote with the Socialists, and a pro-business wing that tends to support the Democrats.
January 1st, 1975: In accordance with a national referendum passed during the parliamentary elections of November 1974, Rhodesia’s is officially renamed as the Republic of Great Zimbabwe, after the ancient African civilization behind the ruins of the same name.
February 8th: Kenya joins the Chennai Pact.
May 1st onwards: In the new Brazilian capital of Salvação, Doctor Lucas Braga, the founder of the International Habitat Protection Agency, declares the establishment of a new political party: the Partido ecológico [Ecological Party. Braga’s new movement, as part of its basic platform, calls for the preservation of endangered animal and plant habitat, and for the, “…full integration of world civilization with the natural [world].”
Although Braga’s party starts off as a comparatively minor party, it begins to catch on in the Empire of Brazil, as an alternative to the established political factions in the country. Braga, charismatic in his speeches full of grand promises, also promises that the Partido ecológico will be free of corruption and administrative incompetence, and will dramatically improve Brazil’s governing system. On his national speaking tours during the rest of the decade, Braga makes his party part of the national counter-culture.
Historians will see the founding of the Partido ecológico as the spark for the new political ideology of “Ecoism,” which will expand across the world stage over the next few decades, more successful in some countries over others.
May 31st onwards: Malaysia joins the Chennai Pact. Subsequently, the CDS (primarily Australia, New Zealand, and the United States) will boost its number of troops in Singapore.
September 4th onwards: At his laboratory in Wilhelmsville, in the German Congo, Doctor Michael Fleischer and his staff receives a horrifying report of an outbreak that has occurred near the Ebola River, in the north of the colony, in the village of Yambuku.
Three doctors from the International Health Organization are sent to investigate the mysterious outbreak. What they discover is the most horrifying discovery of a new virus since Doctor Fleischer’s discovery of the syndrome that bears his name in the last decade. Some two hundred people in the area have died from a disease that kills its victims through massive hemorrhaging. This disease becomes known as Ebola Congo. The area around the village is immediately quarantined, on orders both from the German administration and the Congo Advisory Council. Throughout the remainder of the decade, the IHO redoubles its presence in the Congo, as the region reemerges as the global hotspot for dangerous potential new diseases. Over the next few years, variants of Ebola Congo will be diagnosed by the IHO in Sudan and Gabon.
One long-term result of these latest outbreaks is an international agreement, signed in 1978, that severely restricts the export of monkeys for experimentation. Scientists in the Wilhelmsville Institute theorize that monkeys or apes are the species responsible for initially transmitting both Fleischer’s Syndrome and the Ebola viruses to humans.
February 4th -February 15th 1976: The 12th Winter Olympics are held in Quebec City, Quebec.
January 18th -February 28th onwards: Meeting in the city of Seville, the Spanish Constitutional Convention is opened by President Martínez. After over a month of vigorous debate, the new constitution is ratified and signed by the Convention. The new Spanish constitution includes:
- Freedom of thought, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, and freedom of religion.
- he separation of church and state.
- The outlawing of torture and the abolition of the death penalty.
- The outlawing of “military participation in civilian affairs.” The military will be subject to full civilian control.
- The Spanish President will be limited to one five year term, while those elected to the newly democratized Cortes Generales will be limited to two terms of four years.
The convention also debates the issue of minority rights in the new Spanish Republic. Although the constitution does enshrine minority languages as having legal status next to Spanish, it is agreed to debate the issue of granting further minority rights through the Cortes Generales.
Former Confederate States readmitted to the Union
July 4th: The United States celebrates its bicentennial with massive celebrations across the country. The celebratory events in the former Confederate states tend to have a fairly subdued tone, with local speakers stressing the need for a full reconciliation as “fellow Americans,” as the mayor of Atlanta puts it in his speech.
South Carolina is also readmitted into the Union, bringing the military occupation of the former Confederacy to a conclusion (although many military bases across the South will remain for over a decade in various locales). A significant number of US troops, however, are rotated out of the South for the first time since the end of the Second Great War after 1976, to new bases in Australia, West Papua, and the new Pacific island territories in accordance with the Blackford Doctrine.
Also joining the Union on this date are the new states of Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Martinique.
In the Philippines, the first satellite is launched from the rebuilt and expanded rocketry base at Tayabas Bay—now known as the Humphrey Space Center. West Papua is granted its independence by the CDS, in a ceremony in the new capital of Jayapura. The new country is also admitted into the CDS on the same date.
July 17th -August 1st: The thirty-second Olympiad is held in Moscow, Russia.
July 28th onwards: A massive earthquake destroys the Chinese city of Tangshan, killing over 100,000 people. A massive amount of aid is dispatched to the stricken region by the United States, the Russian Republic, and by the other nations of the CDS.
August-September onwards: On August 14, 1976, as millions of people around the world watch in wonder via television, German Weltraumsmann Conrad Reck-Malleczewen becomes the first human being to step foot on the surface of the Moon. His first words are, “I come here as a torchbearer for all mankind. May billions follow in my footsteps.” The European Space Combine expedition remains for five days, returning to Earth to a hero’s welcome.
On September 2nd, the US expedition arrives, led by Captain Terry DeFrancis II—the younger brother of now Major General Robert DeFrancis, the first American in space. Landing not terribly far away from the ESC site, DeFrancis declares, upon exiting the module, “We have come for all, and will keep returning for all.” The Americans spend four days at their landing site, before returning to Earth. The American Space Men are given a massive ticker-tape parade in New York, and honored by President Blackford at the White House.
In a speech given after the successful American landing, President Blackford promises that the Space Chase is far from over—“…after all, Mars awaits.”
September 30th: Nyasaland [OTL Malawi] gains an Advisory Council.
October 12th: Indonesia joins the Chennai Pact.
November 2nd: President Blackford emerges victorious over the Socialist ticket of Governor Dwight O’Hare of New York, and Congressman Carl Martin of California. The Socialists do manage to recapture a significant number of seats in both the House and the Senate, although the Democrats still maintain overall control.
The Republicans hold steady in Congress, and manage to win additional Canadian and Midwestern states (compared with their 1968 and 1972 showings) with their candidate, Governor George Sidney of Iowa. To the frustration of the Republican Party faithful, the ultimate prize of the White House still seems far away. Chairwoman Driver privately vows to find the perfect candidate for the 1980 elections.
January 20th, 1977: In his second inaugural address, President Blackford promises to continue a path of, “stability, prosperity, and normality.” Blackford also talks at length about further improving US space-borne capabilities, promising that America will, “….spearhead the world towards a future of unknowable wonders and boundless technological advancement.”
February onwards: Chairwoman Karen Driver begins a long correspondence with Ambassador Reynolds. Long an admirer of the famous diplomat, Driver has begun to ponder sounding out Reynolds as the Republican nominee for the 1980 campaign. Reynolds, although already pondering a run for the highest office in the land, has been undecided up until now at which nomination to seek. Driver’s letters lead him, through 1977 and 1978, to see the Republicans in a new light—their nomination, for one, would be the easiest to secure.
February 2nd: Russians go to the polls to elect a successor to Viktor Turov—due in large part to President Turov’s vast popularity, a majority of the vote goes to the outgoing incumbent’s handpicked successor, Foreign Minister Sergei Perov. Perov wins sixty percent against a vigorous challenge from Duma member Vasily Rebikov, who ran an independent campaign. The Communists, decimated by continuing defections to the Socialists over the years, are reduced to irrelevancy in this campaign. Rebikov, although his loses the election, now emerges as the primary opposition figure in the Duma, as the leader of the new Justice and Prosperity Party.
March 8th: In Italy, the Socialist Party wins the latest elections, ushering in as Prime Minister Edmondo Simoni. Simoni, during the campaign, pushed for reforming the Italian Empire in the direction of the Portuguese and German examples. He also argues that it will be the best way to extract Italy from a long running guerrilla war in Italian Somaliland, that has been waging, off and on, for almost a decade.
April 10th: Singapore is granted independence by the CDS; the new nation is also admitted into the military alliance the same day.
April 15th: The Spanish Cortes votes to allow to allow “devolution” for Andalusia and Catalonia. Under these terms, both provinces will now elect their own parliaments, and will be guaranteed full funding at the national level for their local language schools.
May 25th onwards: In an address to a joint session of Congress, President Blackford calls for a major “upgrade” to America’s space program: under his new proposal, the US national effort will now be carried out through a brand new Department of Space and Exploration (DSE); infrastructure from the old USAIA will be transformed into a pan-CDS organization: the Liberty Space Agency (LSA). “Competition, especially friendly competition, is vital for this great endeavor,” argues Blackford.
Although a number of politicians, in light of Germany landing the first man on the Moon, question increasing investment in space exploration, their criticism is fairly muted: due to the previous year’s Moon landings, the public fascination with Outer Space has never been higher.
June 3rd -October 22nd onwards: The tensions between Bharat and China over the status of Tibet explodes into war, as President Zhuang, after a series of clashes on the Chinese-Tibetan frontier, orders an invasion of the country.
In retaliation to this move by China, Bharati forces cross into Tibet a few days later, following contingency plans drawn up by New Delhi for such an event.
The subsequent Tibetan War is a logistical nightmare for both Bharat and China, as both nations struggle to keep their armies fully supplied in the harsh frontier region. Although allied with the Bharatis, the Tibetans quickly find themselves sidelined in the fighting between the two Asian great powers. None of Bharat’s southeast Asian allies in the Chennai Pact elect to join the conflict, beyond tolerating a higher than usual number of border skirmishes with the Chinese.
The United States remains neutral, with President Blackford calling for negotiations to end the fighting. In the meantime, Washington continues to supply Beijing with all of the supplies requested by President Zhuang.
In the end, due mostly to better logistics, the Chinese are able to make the Bharati position in Tibet untenable, forcing a withdrawal by early October. 400,000 Tibetan refugees follow the retreating Bharati forces. The refugees mostly congregate around the northern town of Dharamshala (including the Dali Lama and his entourage).
Ultimately negotiated under German auspices in Potsdam, Bharati and Chinese representatives agree to a formal truce on October 22, 1977. The conflict, although costing relatively few lives next to the carnage of the Fourth Pacific War, sparks fear in American, Brazilian, and Ottoman circles that there will be a wider war waged by the two powers in the coming years and decades.
Another outcome of the conflict is the resignation of Bharati Prime Minister Kocchar, who leaves office after a tearful national address on state television. His successor, longtime deputy Sikandar Ramanujam, promises to continue his predecessor’s economic policies, but makes no mention of foreign policy in his address.
August 1st; The Republic of Celebes gains its independence, ending the long period of American and Australian military rule. Like West Papua, Celebes is quickly admitted into the CDS.
December 19th onwards: The Italian parliament ratifies a new law granting citizenship too all subjects in the colony of Libya, regardless of race or religion. Long considered an integral part of Italy, the new law now allows the Arab and Berber population of the colony civil rights.
This law sparks brutal rioting throughout Italy from those opposed to such actions, often spearheaded by Squadrismo gangs. Ultimately, most Italians come to accept the “Simoni Law,” as necessary for the maintenance of Italian control over the oil rich colony.
January 1st, 1978: The United States ratifies free trade accords with Australia, Korea, New Zealand, and Singapore.
February 21st onwards: President Blackford, after failing to persuade him otherwise, accepts the resignation of Ambassador Reynolds from his post in Beijing. Although he is sorry to leave the Chinese capital, Reynolds now has bigger plans. After intense discussions with his wife, the former diplomat has decided to run for president.
Reynolds’s sudden departure from his post causes a stir in the US media. Rampant speculation begins about his future plans, although Reynolds himself remains mum on the subject to inquiring reporters who visit his home in Vancouver.
March 11th: The Republic of Borneo simultaneously joins the Independence Movement and Chennai Pact.
May 1st: A law passed by the Italian parliament, again spearheaded by Prime Minister Simoni, grants full political equality to all citizens in the colony of Eritrea, sparking massive celebrations in Asmara.
July 20th onwards: Gershom Kafka, author of the bestselling Gladiator saga, publishes a new novel—Metal Men. The story details an invasion of Earth by a race of malicious robots, who desire nothing less than the destruction of all “organic” life in the universe. Borrowing heavily from the actual carnage of the Fourth Pacific and the two Great Wars (as well as the Southern Holocaust), the novel is considered by many to be a kind of spiritual sequel to the dystopian turn of the century works by HG Wells.
Due to the technical challenges involved, a film will not be successfully made of Metal Men until 2006, when an adaption is produced and directed by American filmmaker Zachary C. Webster.
September 18th: As per the results of referendums held earlier in the decade, Dahomey, Goldene Küste, Guinea, and Senegambia are admitted into the newly inaugurated German Economic Association (“Deutsche Wirtschaftliche Vereinigung”), with the Treaty of Bonn. The DWV is intended by Berlin to eventually replace direct colonial rule over their African empire, while continuing the free movement of goods and services between all nations involved.
Under the terms of the arrangement, the newly independent West African members of the DWV will now have full control over their domestic affairs, although under the terms of the Treaty of Bonn, the new nations are not allowed to join any other alliances while remaining a member of the DWV—a thinly veiled reference to the Independence Movement. The Kaiser remains as a symbolic head of state for all of the members of the DWV.
November 7th: In the US congressional midterm elections, the Socialists gain more seats at the expense of the Democrats, especially in California and traditional Socialist-leaning states in the Midwest, and win full control of the Senate. The Republicans, under the leadership of Chairman Driver, have one of their best nights in almost a century, winning a large number of House seats in the Mid-Atlantic states, as well as in California and New York. Political analysts credit this Republican surge to Chairman Driver’s great political savvy, as well as an usually high number of open congressional seats (due to retirements).
However, almost no one seriously considers the idea that a Republican will have a serious chance in the upcoming 1980 presidential elections.
December 25th onwards: Italian forces, having begun their withdrawal in the fall of 1978, finish departing from the vast majority of their former colony of Somaliland. Remaining in the quiet regions of Djibouti and Puntland , the Italians finally bring their long war in the region to a close.
A new government in Mogadishu, led by Asad Muhammad Othman, promptly requests admission into the Independence Movement, which is granted. The new Somali Republic quickly signs an agreement with the Ottoman Empire to train a new national military, as well as to collaborate on civilian projects.
However, the Somali Republic’s ascent into the IM is marred by the rapid emergence of a dispute with neighboring Ethiopia over the Ogaden, a region of eastern Ethiopia that is predominantly Somali. The Ethiopians react angrily to Othman’s demands for a “referendum” on the territory’s future status. The Ottomans, fearing the outbreak of a war between two members of the IM, quickly dispatch a large armed force on the (Somali) side of the border, to keep the two sides separated.
January 1st, 1979: The Portuguese Federation is inaugurated with ceremonies and celebrations throughout the former empire. The new entity, whose capital remains Lisbon (the location of the new Portuguese Congress), is a federal union between Portugal and its former colonies.
February 12, 1979 onwards: Former ambassador Morgan Reynolds announces his candidacy for president at a rally in his hometown of Vancouver, British Columbia as a Republican. His entrance into the race promises to turn the 1980 election into an eventful one. Even after this announcement, however, most political observers do not expect his candidacy to go very far: after all, as they remind their readers, no Republican has won a US presidential election since the ill-fated James G. Blaine in 1880.
Reynolds is the first Canadian-American to run for the nomination of a major American political party.
In his announcement, Reynolds claims to stand for “bold, new ideas” for the United States to “move beyond the shadows and horrors of the past.” Even at this first speech, political commentators note that the former diplomat, although charismatic, never goes into particulars. One commenter, Thomas Harry Johnson of The Denver Post, does remark, somewhat sarcastically, that, “…perhaps most voters will want generalities this time around.”
April 30th onwards:The People’s Friendly Veil is published in New Delhi. Written (secretly) by Bharati journalist Adeela Vivekananda during his nine-year stay in the Japanese Worker’s Republic, the book is the first major publication to shed any kind of light on Sakamoto’s isolated nation. Vivekananda paints a picture of a government that enforces its will through a secretive, labyrinthine, and sometimes comically incompetent bureaucracy, although the regime is not afraid to use violence to enforce its legitimacy.
The book itself becomes famous as a classic piece of travel writing, and becomes an important source for diplomats and historians seeking to understand Sakamoto’s secretive regime.
June 30th: Former Secretary of State Mildred Morrell-Quigley, having resigned from her position the previous November, announces that she will run for the Democratic nomination for president, now that it has been confirmed that Vice President Rhodes will not run.
July 4th: Alaska is admitted into the Union.
August 14th onwards: After years of pressure from Washington, the government of Liberia formally abolishes all restrictions on voting in the country—namely the discriminatory laws that limited the right to vote to the descendants of former American slaves.
October 30th onwards: After years of quiet negotiations, President Blackford and Chancellor Mann, in their summit in Chicago, announce that they have agreed on a new accord related to the superbomb and sunbomb arsenals of their respective nations. Under the terms agreed at the Chicago Summit, the United States and Germany will, over the course of the next five years, dismantle all “outdated” atomic weapons. Both leaders reiterate, however, that the two countries will continue to work together to prevent nuclear proliferation from any nation.
December 31st: The last European Community forces depart from the South African Confederation, ending almost a decade of conflict.
January, 1980 onwards: Immigration rates to the United States continue at a steady pace throughout the 1980s, particularly from Asia. Although seen as a rival to American power in the region, Bharat emerges as a new source of immigrants (with many beginning as students who come to the USA to study, and then elect to remain). Burma and Thailand also begin to emerge as major sources of immigrants during this time.
Beginning in the 1980s, the West African member states of the German Economic Association begin to supply a growing number of immigrants to the USA, although the major waves of immigrants from the DWV will not emerge until the 1990s and 2000s.
Beginning in the 1980s, large numbers of people from the former Confederacy begin to move outside of the region for the first time since the end of the Second Great War—much of this movement is related to economic necessity, as industrial production begins to leave locales such as Birmingham, and the old textile centers in North and South Carolina. Many, although not all, Southerners in these waves of migration move to either the Rocky Mountain West or the Canadian states, where new construction, energy and Big Tech-related jobs create a burgeoning need for labor.
Still lead by Cassius Madison, the Remembrance Center’s agents continue to work with the Justice Department (and the OSS) in pursuing fugitive Confederate war criminals. With the collapse of previously friendly regimes in former Rhodesia and apartheid South Africa, these fugitives have few safe havens—if any—that they can depend on. In spite of these promising trends, Madison refuses to let up the pursuit.
The United States Department of Technology continues to fund promising research being conducted both by universities and private laboratories in a wide variety of fields—including astronomy, chemistry, combine tech, engineering, physics, and transportation. The USDT also funds promising start-ups in the emerging Big Tech field.
Over the course of the 1980s, the European Community’s Continental free travel arrangement begins to make its effects felt. Two beneficiaries of this easier movement of people are Great Britain and France—although their respective economies have recovered from the depths of their long post-Second Great War recessions, economists in both nations warn that their economies will begin to stagnate again without a large influx of new workers (and taxpayers).
Beginning in the 1980s, both Britain and France begin sending agents throughout the EC to recruit new immigrants to live and work in their countries, focusing especially on finding skilled laborers. The Kingdom of Belarus, the Hellenic Republic, the Italian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, the Portuguese Federation, the Kingdom of Romania, the Spanish Republic, and the Kingdom of Ukraine are all major sources of immigrants to Britain and France; by the end of the 1980s, population growth in both nations, due to rising birthrates and high immigration rates, have started to grow for the first time since before the Second Great War.